How is difficulty calculated? - Bitcoin Stack Exchange
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Bitcoin’s Mining Difficulty Has Rarely Been This Static in ...
Bitcoin Mining - BitcoinWiki
Gridcoin 126.96.36.199-Mandatory "Fern" Release
https://github.com/gridcoin-community/Gridcoin-Research/releases/tag/188.8.131.52 Finally! After over ten months of development and testing, "Fern" has arrived! This is a whopper. 240 pull requests merged. Essentially a complete rewrite that was started with the scraper (the "neural net" rewrite) in "Denise" has now been completed. Practically the ENTIRE Gridcoin specific codebase resting on top of the vanilla Bitcoin/Peercoin/Blackcoin vanilla PoS code has been rewritten. This removes the team requirement at last (see below), although there are many other important improvements besides that. Fern was a monumental undertaking. We had to encode all of the old rules active for the v10 block protocol in new code and ensure that the new code was 100% compatible. This had to be done in such a way as to clear out all of the old spaghetti and ring-fence it with tightly controlled class implementations. We then wrote an entirely new, simplified ruleset for research rewards and reengineered contracts (which includes beacon management, polls, and voting) using properly classed code. The fundamentals of Gridcoin with this release are now on a very sound and maintainable footing, and the developers believe the codebase as updated here will serve as the fundamental basis for Gridcoin's future roadmap. We have been testing this for MONTHS on testnet in various stages. The v10 (legacy) compatibility code has been running on testnet continuously as it was developed to ensure compatibility with existing nodes. During the last few months, we have done two private testnet forks and then the full public testnet testing for v11 code (the new protocol which is what Fern implements). The developers have also been running non-staking "sentinel" nodes on mainnet with this code to verify that the consensus rules are problem-free for the legacy compatibility code on the broader mainnet. We believe this amount of testing is going to result in a smooth rollout. Given the amount of changes in Fern, I am presenting TWO changelogs below. One is high level, which summarizes the most significant changes in the protocol. The second changelog is the detailed one in the usual format, and gives you an inkling of the size of this release.
Note that the protocol changes will not become active until we cross the hard-fork transition height to v11, which has been set at 2053000. Given current average block spacing, this should happen around October 4, about one month from now. Note that to get all of the beacons in the network on the new protocol, we are requiring ALL beacons to be validated. A two week (14 day) grace period is provided by the code, starting at the time of the transition height, for people currently holding a beacon to validate the beacon and prevent it from expiring. That means that EVERY CRUNCHER must advertise and validate their beacon AFTER the v11 transition (around Oct 4th) and BEFORE October 18th (or more precisely, 14 days from the actual date of the v11 transition). If you do not advertise and validate your beacon by this time, your beacon will expire and you will stop earning research rewards until you advertise and validate a new beacon. This process has been made much easier by a brand new beacon "wizard" that helps manage beacon advertisements and renewals. Once a beacon has been validated and is a v11 protocol beacon, the normal 180 day expiration rules apply. Note, however, that the 180 day expiration on research rewards has been removed with the Fern update. This means that while your beacon might expire after 180 days, your earned research rewards will be retained and can be claimed by advertising a beacon with the same CPID and going through the validation process again. In other words, you do not lose any earned research rewards if you do not stake a block within 180 days and keep your beacon up-to-date. The transition height is also when the team requirement will be relaxed for the network.
Besides the beacon wizard, there are a number of improvements to the GUI, including new UI transaction types (and icons) for staking the superblock, sidestake sends, beacon advertisement, voting, poll creation, and transactions with a message. The main screen has been revamped with a better summary section, and better status icons. Several changes under the hood have improved GUI performance. And finally, the diagnostics have been revamped.
The wallet sync speed has been DRASTICALLY improved. A decent machine with a good network connection should be able to sync the entire mainnet blockchain in less than 4 hours. A fast machine with a really fast network connection and a good SSD can do it in about 2.5 hours. One of our goals was to reduce or eliminate the reliance on snapshots for mainnet, and I think we have accomplished that goal with the new sync speed. We have also streamlined the in-memory structures for the blockchain which shaves some memory use. There are so many goodies here it is hard to summarize them all. I would like to thank all of the contributors to this release, but especially thank @cyrossignol, whose incredible contributions formed the backbone of this release. I would also like to pay special thanks to @barton2526, @caraka, and @Quezacoatl1, who tirelessly helped during the testing and polishing phase on testnet with testing and repeated builds for all architectures. The developers are proud to present this release to the community and we believe this represents the starting point for a true renaissance for Gridcoin!
Most significantly, nodes calculate research rewards directly from the magnitudes in EACH superblock between stakes instead of using a two- or three- point average based on a CPID's current magnitude and the magnitude for the CPID when it last staked. For those long-timers in the community, this has been referred to as "Superblock Windows," and was first done in proof-of-concept form by @denravonska.
Network magnitude unit pinned to a static value of 0.25
Max research reward allowed per block raised to 16384 GRC (from 12750 GRC)
New CPIDs begin accruing research rewards from the first superblock that contains the CPID instead of from the time of the beacon advertisement
500 GRC research reward limit for a CPID's first stake
6-month expiration for unclaimed rewards
10-block spacing requirement between research reward claims
Rolling 5-day payment-per-day limit
Legacy tolerances for floating-point error and time drift
The need to include a valid copy of a CPID's magnitude in a claim
10-block emission adjustment interval for the magnitude unit
One-time beacon activation requires that participants temporarily change their usernames to a verification code at one whitelisted BOINC project
Verification codes of pending beacons expire after 3 days
Self-service beacon removal
Burn fee for beacon advertisement increased from 0.00001 GRC to 0.5 GRC
Rain addresses derived from beacon keys instead of a default wallet address
Beacon expiration determined as of the current block instead of the previous block
The ability for developers to remove beacons
The ability to sign research reward claims with non-current but unexpired beacons
As a reminder:
Beacons expire after 6 months pass (180 days)
Beacons can be renewed after 5 months pass (150 days)
Renewed beacons must be signed with the same key as the original beacon
Magnitudes less than 1 include two fractional places
Magnitudes greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10 include one fractional place
A valid superblock must match a scraper convergence
Superblock popularity election mechanics
Yes/no/abstain and single-choice response types (no user-facing support yet)
To create a poll, a maximum of 250 UTXOs for a single address must add up to 100000 GRC. These are selected from the largest downwards.
Burn fee for creating polls scaled by the number of UTXOs claimed
50 GRC for a poll contract
0.001 GRC per claimed UTXO
Burn fee for casting votes scaled by the number of UTXOs claimed
0.01 GRC for a vote contract
0.01 GRC to claim magnitude
0.01 GRC per claimed address
0.001 GRC per claimed UTXO
Maximum length of a poll title: 80 characters
Maximum length of a poll question: 100 characters
Maximum length of a poll discussion website URL: 100 characters
Maximum number of poll choices: 20
Maximum length of a poll choice label: 100 characters
Magnitude, CPID count, and participant count poll weight types
The ability for developers to remove polls and votes
[184.108.40.206] 2020-09-03, mandatory, "Fern"
Backport newer uint256 types from Bitcoin #1570 (@cyrossignol)
Implement project level rain for rainbymagnitude #1580 (@jamescowens)
Upgrade utilities (Update checker and snapshot downloadeapplication) #1576 (@iFoggz)
Provide fees collected in the block by the miner #1601 (@iFoggz)
Add support for generating legacy superblocks from scraper stats #1603 (@cyrossignol)
Port of the Bitcoin Logger to Gridcoin #1600 (@jamescowens)
Implement zapwallettxes #1605 (@jamescowens)
Implements a global event filter to suppress help question mark #1609 (@jamescowens)
Add next target difficulty to RPC output #1615 (@cyrossignol)
Add caching for block hashes to CBlock #1624 (@cyrossignol)
Make toolbars and tray icon red for testnet #1637 (@jamescowens)
Add an rpc call convergencereport #1643 (@jamescowens)
Implement newline filter on config file read in #1645 (@jamescowens)
Implement beacon status icon/button #1646 (@jamescowens)
Add gridcointestnet.png #1649 (@caraka)
Add precision to support magnitudes less than 1 #1651 (@cyrossignol)
Replace research accrual calculations with superblock snapshots #1657 (@cyrossignol)
Publish example gridcoinresearch.conf as a md document to the doc directory #1662 (@jamescowens)
Add options checkbox to disable transaction notifications #1666 (@jamescowens)
Add support for self-service beacon deletion #1695 (@cyrossignol)
Add support for type-specific contract fee amounts #1698 (@cyrossignol)
Add verifiedbeaconreport and pendingbeaconreport #1696 (@jamescowens)
Add preliminary testing option for block v11 height on testnet #1706 (@cyrossignol)
Add verified beacons manifest part to superblock validator #1711 (@cyrossignol)
Implement beacon, vote, and superblock display categories/icons in UI transaction model #1717 (@jamescowens)
Solution Life is an open-source platform that enables to create peer-to-peer marketplace and ecommerce applications. https://preview.redd.it/ypmpkfwnb6s51.png?width=613&format=png&auto=webp&s=6936dbdd70f1626bb352a426f3b59383b8b8c9cc Solution Life aims at building a global sharing economy, allowing buyers and sellers to use segments of goods and services (car sharing, service missions, home sharing, etc.) to transact on the open, distributed source web. Using Ethereum blockchain and Interplanetary File System (IPFS), the platform and its participants can interact with the peer-to-peer model, allowing the creation and placement of services and goods without going through traditional middle parties. We plan to build a large-scale commercial network: • Exchange financial value directly (listing, transactions and service fees) from big corporations like Airbnb, Craigslist, Postmate, ... to individual buyers and retailers. • Exchange financial value and strategic value (internal aggregation of customer and transaction data) from similar corporations to entire ecosystems • Create new financial value for market participants who contribute to platform development (e.g. building new technology for the Solution Life platform, developing new vertical products and introducing new users and businesses) • Build the open, distributed, and shared data layer to promote transparency and collaboration • Allow the buyers and sellers in the world to transact without difficulty in converting currencies or tariffs • Promote personal freedom by not allowing a corporation or central government to impose arbitrary and overly conventional rules of business operation. To conduct these ambitious goals, we created the Solution Life Platform with programs that encourage technologists, businesses and consumers to build, contribute, and expand the ecosystem. We plan to build a broad collection of vertical industry applications (e.g. short vacation rental, free software engineering, tutoring) built on standards and data sharing Solution Life. When writing this article, the Solution Life platform is currently in Mainnet Beta. Platform Version 1.0 is expected to be activated in Quarter 3/2020. While the majority of engineering work is being done by the core engineering team, we expect future developments, after launching platform 1.0 from developer, will come to open source community members Together, we will create the Internet economy of the future. Details of Whitepaper: • Why is a new model of peer to peer trading necessary? • Benefits proposed on the Solution Life Platform • Product strategy, main features and technical overview • Overview of the Solution Life team and community https://preview.redd.it/tzepfegpb6s51.png?width=759&format=png&auto=webp&s=62c9933e84e9945b5417591e406390d127fa1070 BACKGROUND Since the appearance of the Internet, the digital marketplace has connected buyers and sellers of goods and services, allowing transactions that have never happened before. Craigslist launched in 1995 and dominated for many years in local and regional commerce. At the same time, eBay began to grow and create a whole new category of sales based on auction, creating a more efficient way of doing market business. Through 20 years of rapid change, many businesses on the Internet market in both B2C and B2B types have developed strongly. Currently, sharing economy markets such as Airbnb, Uber, Getaround, Fiverr and TaskRmus have been very successful in combining buyers and sellers of the sharing economy. Now, the use of distributed assets can be sold as easily as atomic items, and people around the world are exchanging their excess inventory, time, and skills for profit. New markets including the Gig economy, the service sector and the use of segment assets are particularly suitable to be basis for peer-to-peer systems built on blockchain. Most of the shared economic enterprises have some common points. Firstly, as a collection, these companies have made a big impact on the world. Consumers of the markets were able to improve their lives with access to products and services that they didn't have before. Vendors have been using these platforms to reach customers on a larger and easier scale than before. Each market creates a "private home" for consumers and suppliers to transact together, creating liquidity for that market. Secondly, most sharing economic enterprises follow the same growth cycle. Without a few exceptions, these famous markets are difficult to launch and grow. Enterprises in the market often have to start building with millions of dollars, and in terms of Uber and Airbnb, these two businesses spend billions of dollars to scale. That is also the reason why these businesses suffered serious losses in the early days. In fact, the corporation is subsidizing the use of marketplace for its users. However, due to the very positive cross-network effect, successful marketplace businesses can increase revenue exponentially over time, usually by charging a fee per transaction on the network. Network-effect enterprises, such as share economy market, are often enterprises occupying all directions and growing stage, gaining a disproportionate value from the network for corporation’s management and their shareholders. In many ways, they become the only dictator on the scale they achieve. Finally, although there are huge differences in user experience, business mechanics, and vertical specific features among companies on the Internet market, they all share many parts built and rebuild many times. Lyft, Postmate, and DoorDash themselves has designed their own solutions for user and supplier profiles, shopping experiences, matching algorithms, reviews, and ratings. This is proprietary technology that is valuable on one side. On the other hand, chasing useless things each time creates a new market vertically wasted time and effort. Consumers also create and manage dozens of accounts on these market enterprises themselves, each with their own personal data and transaction history. In the last few years, blockchain technology innovators and investors have called teams to build peer-topeer versions of businesses in the current sharing economy and to trade the Internet in a more efficient way. P2P lodging sites like Airbnb have already begun to transform the lodging industry by making a public market in private housing. However, adoption may be limited by concerns about safety and security (guests) and property damage (hosts). By enabling a secure, tamper-proof system for managing digital credentials and reputation, we believe blockchain could help accelerate the adoption of P2P lodging and generate.” - Goldman Sachs Research (Blockchain: Putting Theory into Practice) Don Tapscott, the author of the "Blockchain Revolution", said that Bitcoin-based technology could be used to promote the interest in Uber and Airbnb. - The Wall Street Journal "It is difficult for middle parties to achieve sustainable growth in business," [Fritz Joussen] said. "These platforms [tourism middle parties] build accessibility by spending billions of dollars on advertising, and then they generate exclusive profits based on what they have with sales and marketing. They provide great sales and marketing services. Booking.com is a big brand but they make outstanding profits because they own proprietary structures. Blockchain will destroy this. "- Skift However, most of the infrastructure and transmission systems for building distributed-market applications did not exist before Solution Life was born. We aim to address the shortcomings of current market companies and are happy that we have launched the Solution Life Platform, which opens up peer-to-peer commerce with corresponding scale. 📷 ACTIVATE THE OVER THE COUNTER MARKET Our vision is to build and develop a free service exchange on the new Internet. In order to do this, we have to build a simulation platform of most, if not all, of the functionality of a third-party intermediary on the blockchain and other distribution systems. This is an ambitious and technologically challenging goal, but we have already completed important milestones that demonstrate our technology and the realworld applications of the project. The Solution Life platform has 3 main elements, all of which are open sources: • Solution Life enabled end user applications • Solution Life platform for developers • Solution Life's application protocol Solution Life enables end user applications The Solution Life flagship marketplace app is our consumer marketplace product that allows buyers and sellers on the network to do business. It is available today on the web at shopSolution Life.com and on both iOS and Android mobile devices. 📷 Summary For the past two decades, Internet marketplaces and e-commerce stores have changed the way that buyers and sellers connect, creating new opportunities for the exchange of goods and services. However, these marketplaces have always been governed by centralized companies that maintain their individual monopolies on data, transaction and other service fees, and ultimately, user choice. With blockchain and other distributed technologies beginning to hit the mainstream, the world is poised for a new wave of decentralized commerce. SLC is bringing change and innovation to the global peer-to-peer economy. We're excited by the opportunity to lower fees, increase innovation, free customer and transaction data, and decrease censorship and unnecessary regulation. We are building a platform that invites other interested parties including developers and entrepreneurs to build this technology and community with us, altogether working to create the peer-to-peer economy of tomorrow. We hope you’ll join us on this exciting journey. TOKEN SOLUTION LIFE (SLC) The Solution Life Token (also known as SLC) is a utility token that serves multiple purposes in ensuring the health and growth of the network. The ERC20 contract is live on the Ethereum network today at: 0x4d44D6c288b7f32fF676a4b2DAfD625992f8Ffbd. At a high level, this token is intended to serve a number of key functions on the platform. First, the SLC is a multi-purpose incentive token that is intended to drive the behavior of end users, developers, market operators, and other ecosystem participants. Additionally, the SLC is an exchange intermediary that can be used for payments between buyers and sellers on the platform. Ultimately, it is intended that SLC will serve a vital part in future network governance. Since November 2020, the Solution Life token has been used to encourage various forms of participation from the platform's ecosystem participants. Token Solution Life is used to reward users, developers, marketplace operators and / or other participants for performing activities and services conducive to Platform development. Solution Life Rewards Solution Life is an incentive program targeted at end users on the Platform. Buyers and sellers on the platform have been able to earn SLC since our inaugural Solution Life Rewards campaign in Nov of 2020. Solution Life Rewards enables everyone to have a stake in the network. We’ve intentionally designed the program so that even novice, non-technical users can participate. With Solution Life Rewards, users can get SLC from account creation and identity verification. One of the best ways to network is through referrals. As such, end users can also earn tokens by inviting new users. This creates more confidence between the buyer and the seller. Users can also earn SLC by following Solution Life's social networking sites or promoting project news on public channels. To encourage trading volume on our Solution Life Platform, we also offer a refund mechanism for users who purchase from reputable sellers on our network. Solution Life Commissions Encouraging marketplace developers and managers to use the Solution Life platform is essential. Therefore, we launched an advertising and promotion program, creating an integrated business model for the decentralized marketplace running on Solution Life. Merchants on Solution Life apps can promote their listings using SLCs for greater visibility on search and browse results on our preferred and partner apps. The only way to join this program is to pay with SLC. When a merchant creates a listing, they can add a commission paid in SLC to their listing. This SLC is placed on escrow in the Marketplace Smart Contract.
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Implementing a synthetic cryptoasset by leveraging RenVM mainnet and Ethereum DeFi protocols
Hi, We are creating a new decentralized synthetic cryptoasset codenamed XOR on Ethereum ecosystem. We call it a synthetic asset becuase it's a synthesis of BTC, ETH and major altcoins and USD stablecoins. XOR lets investors and token-holders gain exposure to the BTC-Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies while protecting them from extreme intraday price volatility and downside risks generally associated with cryptocurrencies. Basically XOR is a capital protection insurance with infinite upside potential. XOR is an DeFi protocol that will allocate funds under its management to the following three classes of crypto assets: 1. Bitcoin and 2. USD-linked stablecoins and 3. Altcoins such as ETH, XLM and XTZ dynamically and directionally in a mutually exclusive way. If BTC value is either relatively stable or positively increasing relative to the purchasing power of the basket of Stablecoins-(USDC, TrueUSD and USDT), XOR protocol automatically buys more BTC/Bitcoins. But when BTC price negatively fluctuates and losses 3% or more value for more than >10 minutes, then XOR Conversion Contract automatically reshuffles and rebalances its portfolio of crypto assets to the basket of stablecoins by progressively selling BTC and Altcoins and by reallocating funds more and more.... to USD stablecoins in a calibrated manner guided by the DelayFunc(0.50%++/--) that limits buying/selling to 10% of the AUM until the target assets rises(while buying that asset) or falls(while selling) by another 0.5%. And again when BTC and Altcoin prices stabilize and their prices start increasing relative to the stablecoin basket by >1%, then XOR dynamically rebalances its portfolio to BTC and Altcoins by buying them in the open market indefinitely unless and until situation reverses itself and another portfolio swap of underlying AUM to stablecoins gets triggered by negative fluctuations of BTC/Altcoins. And in order to generate surplus reserves to pay for transaction fees/gas prices due to frequent rebalancing of its protfolio, XOR will be lending up to 90% of its AUM(BTC, ETH, Altcoins and USD stablecoins) on DeFi markets like Bzx, DeFipulse, Kyber, Compound, Airswap and so on. We are thinking of implementing three contracts to accomplish the functionalities of XOR: 1. Conversion contract, 2. Data oracle contract on Chainlink, and 3. an ERC20 contract as XOR token. Now we are facing following challenges in implementing these contracts in order to maintain 100% fidelity to the mission and manifesto of XOR that's protecting our AUM assets from negative marekt downturns but also exposing them to positive market upturns:
how to convert large amount of multiple cryptocurrencies to USD stablecoins e.g. USDC, USDT, TUSD, BUSD etc and vice versa without causing large spikes in prices of target assets in the DeFi markets and decentralized exchanges like IDEX or Binance DEX?
how to manage cryptoassets under management and implement the trading rules, order routing and money management protocols?
how to implement the logic of the contracts on ethereum platform alone by using wrapped coins such as WBTC? So instead of buying BTC, we will buy equivalent wrapped BTC which will overcome the difficulties in cross-chain conversion and reconversion.
Is it technically feasible to employ RenVM mainnet to solve some of the challenges of rebalancing of crypto portfolio in most efficient and cost-effective way along with Bzx, Defipulse, Compound, Airswap and Kyber? What would be the ideal mechanism for building such a synthetic cryptoasset?
How to implement a Proof-of-Asset subprotocol/explorer to transparently display cryptoassets-under-management of XOR?
We will award 40,000 Coins to each person here if we receive quality responses.
Gold Token; The stable coin that converts physcial gold to digital gold
Today I will summarize you a few knowledge about Blockchain Technology !! Blockchain, the preliminary block chain name is a hierarchical database that shops records in blocks of statistics that are related via encryption and make bigger over time. Each data block contains facts about the initialization time and is connected to the previous block, with a time code and transaction information. Blockchain is designed to withstand data change: Once the information is usual with the aid of the community, there may be no manner to change it. Blockchain is guaranteed via the layout the usage of hierarchical computing machine with high tolerance of byzantine mistakes. So decentralized consensus can be done by Blockchain. So Blockchain is appropriate for recording activities, scientific statistics, transaction processing, notarization, identification and proving beginning. This has the potential to assist put off primary results while information is modified within the context of world trade. https://preview.redd.it/vc68tqi4y8t41.jpg?width=302&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b8d5aed8d16ed50e2369072fef89ea6977044d03 The first blockchain changed into invented and designed by means of Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008 and changed into realized the following 12 months as a center a part of Bitcoin, while blockchain technology acts as a ledger for all deal. Through the usage of peer networks and a hierarchical statistics device, Bitcoin blockchain is controlled robotically. The invention of the blockchain for Bitcoin has made it the first digital currency to resolve the double spending trouble when a single amount of money is used two times. This technology of Bitcoin has become an proposal for a variety of different applications. Blockchain and cryptocurrency: Special blockchain promotes its strength in dealing with and trading on-line assets which are currently the maximum popular bitcoin. Since there's handiest a confined number of (21 million bitcoins), however the want to spend money on bitcoin as a source of asset replacements for gold, foreign currencies and shares. Constantly escalating, the rate of bitcoin has extended dramatically. Uncontrolled by means of the authorities, without inflation and having to exploit like gold, this currency is the supply of rescuing Venezuela's hyper-inflationary country - where humans hardly ever buy something with the neighborhood currency but owns the largest bitcoin mines within the global. However, bitcoin also has a dilemma trouble owned by the network that is nonetheless debating the answer. https://preview.redd.it/3z92nd37y8t41.jpg?width=259&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=56d58048f948fb39388f5767ca8ae804f954ccde In the past few years, the Blockchain generation has been used as a device to document the records of cryptocurrency transactions. Bitcoin turned into a success and grew unexpectedly when it convinced the fastidious customers. Bitcoin is surely treasured and it's far traded and saved securely online. Everyone thinks that Bitcoin will open a new generation for industrial revolution, the 4.0 commercial revolution in which blockchain technology is widely used. The destiny of Blockchain era: The emergence of Blockchain as well as milestones when personal computer systems or Internet are born, this system will trade the manner we apprehend and understand society. The biggest capability is to create a place to use Smart Contract: agreements in contracts and transactions will be confirmed without disclosing data between events with a positive middleman while ensuring the entirety is the maximum obvious and sure. Information in Blockchain can't be counterfeited (but may additionally nonetheless go away strains), all modifications want to get consensus of all taking part nodes within the machine. It is a gadget that does not easily disintegrate, due to the fact even supposing one a part of the community is numb, the opposite nodes will continue to function to protect the data. Blockchain technology opens a new trend for regions along with banking and finance, logistics, electronics and telecommunications, accounting and auditing. https://preview.redd.it/q27oper8y8t41.jpg?width=275&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a50174b4e53d390fd89ba7647e66bbae2822519b Not simplest that Blockchain is likewise the center of Internet of Things (IoT). Electronic devices can talk thoroughly and transparently, unrighteous efforts within the Internet international will no longer paintings, and lots greater ...Currently there are numerous large organizations and companies which are constructing their own Blockchain network. So we can quickly see this could create a wave for the future.
GOLD: Gold has been broadly used around the sector as a means of foreign money conversion, both by using issuing and spotting gold cash or other steel numbers, or via paper money equipment. Converted into gold by developing a gold popular wherein the full fee of the money issued is represented by a gold reserve.
DIGITAL GOLD Securely Store and Make payments in Gold
DIGITAL GOLD is a task evolved based on blockchain technology. The intention of this project is to digitize the financial marketplace and at the identical time digitize their improvement funding units. The Digital Gold (link https://gold.Storage/) project will launch Gold token based on Ethereum ERC-20 and be sponsored through bodily gold. Users can buy Gold without delay with none drawback. 1 GOLD token might be equal to one gram of physical gold 99.99%. And the special aspect that customers can accept as true with is physical gold stored inside the company's warehouse. This makes customers in reality consider in the business enterprise's mission. Customers who purchase tokens can change not directly (transactions are done quickly due to the fact the challenge is carried out with blockchain era, does not require complex methods like normal transactions), can store it as saved store your house. Another super aspect, while the client buys GOLD token, the value of that token can be constant in step with the physical gold price at that point. So GOLD token is similar to Stablecoin, which enables defend customers towards marketplace volatility inside the cryptocurrency market, even as helping customers advantage from gold's long-term charge increases. https://preview.redd.it/x9c55brdy8t41.jpg?width=299&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=aeeee0fe12a5b475a3cfc2441ff981abbd812b25 Currently, the utility of Blockchain era into payment is turning into extra famous and gold digitization will genuinely growth the attraction for this uncommon metallic. This will create a liquidity for GOLD token, ensuring that always, where liquidity is constantly maintained, customers can without difficulty capture the quantity of Gold tokens presently circulating inside the marketplace and the number of Token How plenty is saved in stock? Liquidity is the survival of the project. The application of Blockchain generation into Digital Gold task: the application of blockchain era into this venture helps to enhance the transaction capability, the transactions are made speedy, the transaction charge is very low, implemented via Ethereum block. The protection of patron records is likewise guaranteed from network assaults, clever settlement applications, supports all ERC20 wallets and Gold tokens on buying and selling platforms (accomplice platform). With the improvement of blockchain technology, gold can now act as a charge for all transactions, gold is not only stored however additionally traded as an investment tool. Official Website :https://gold.Storage/White paper:https://gold.Storage/wp.PdfTelegram:https://t.Me/digitalgoldcoinTwitter:https://twitter.Com/golderc20 Author: Cryptobae10 https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=2023123
Launching Native Tokens With Just One Click? Every one can issue native token that has the same function as ETH
https://preview.redd.it/yetb5638qol41.png?width=1600&format=png&auto=webp&s=75b4bd8fef0aa716a8d2624e3e8c91ffa2e3fc18 Native token refers to tokens that are directly issued by the blockchain infrastructure for maintaining normal operations. These tokens are used for realizing equity and for implementing fixed functions of the blockchain systems. Prime examples are Bitcoin, Ethereum, and QKC. On the basis of application protocols, tokens that are built on top of existing blockchain systems and are used for deploying smart contracts are known as smart contract tokens. It is widely adopted on the dApps of different public chains, of which ERC20 protocol is the most famous. The ERC20 protocol that runs on Ethereum stands out as the common standard for the digital token market thanks to its versatility and convenience. The ERC20 tokens that are issued by such contracts became a credible proof of assets that help smart and medium scale projects to raise funds. In particular, during 2017, thousands of projects issued ERC20 tokens for financing, which became a propelling force for the bull market of cryptocurrencies to flourish that year. However, the ERC-20 contract is crippled by its functions and relevance: it only has two main usages: approval and exchange, which significantly impact the room of applications and usages. Many public chains have issued dynamic tokens using the ERC20 standard. If one can add more functionalities to the ERC20 contract, such that the tokens issued can realize functionalities that resemble that of Ethereum’s native token ETH, it can result in multiple benefits. Not only can it can lower users’ costs and benefits more developers, it would also stimulate more developers to build applications on the platform. In addition, the convenience of multinative tokens will significantly lower the frequency of token exchanges within DeFi applications, which in turn streamline the operations and thus lower cost of processing fees, all of which makes DeFi easier to use.
A. The functional value of smart contract tokens (such as ERC-20) as an financial instrument:
The ERC20 standard that was launched in 2015 has transformed the landscape of the cryptocurrency industry. The ERC20 standard requires a smart token contract to specify six parameters and realize a number of credible, widely-adopted basic functionalities.
Functions that assign the initial distribution of tokens:
The totalSupply function sets up the initial distribution of tokens, which limits the maximum supply of a certain token. This smart contract will stop issuing tokens when the maximum is reached. The balanceOf function provides the number of tokens held by a given address. 2. Functions that realize token transfer: The transfer function transfers a number of tokens directly from the message sender to another address. The transferFrom function allows a user (or contract) to delegate another user (or contract) to transfer owner funds to a third party address. 3. Functions that execute approval of delegation: The approve function allows the approval of a delegation. It approves the delegator to use transformFrom to transfer tokens for the delegatee with uplimit allowance, which provides the maximum number of tokens allowed to be transferred from a given address by another given address. By this design, different participants are able to make barrier-free transactions based on the same protocol. Also, the code of different exchanges and wallets can be consistent and is compatible with any token based on ERC20, which allows ERC20 tokens to enjoy ultimate liquidity. Moreover, the transaction fee needed for paying for frequent transactions pushes the demand for the native token, which in turn helps Ethereum rank second by market capitalization and applications.
B. Bottleneck of Massive Adoption Faced By Smart Contract Tokens Such as ERC20:
There exists some weaknesses in ERC20 other than its financing function. These deficiencies create a certain degree of inconvenience and in some cases, even irreversible loss of assets.
Loss of tokens
When a user wants to transfer tokens to a particular smart contract and deploy such smart contract such as for borrowing purpose, an intuitive way is to transfer ETH or ERC 20 token to the target contract address. ETH can be transferred in this manner easily whilst ERC20 can be transferred yet the transferred ERC20 tokens will enter into an forever-inoperable state, which is the same as if the tokens have disappeared. 2. Gas fees require to be paid using native tokens and heightens the hurdles for new users to enter When using ERC20 tokens for transactions, in order to process the transaction, one would need to pay transaction fees using ETH native tokens since ERC20 tokens do not carry such functional value; such constraint exists due to the positioning of the original design of ERC20. Within such design, during buying and selling of securities, one would need to prepare an extra type of currency to pay for the transactions, a type of currency that only serves for that particular purpose and for nothing else. In comparison, while buying or selling stocks in real life, one can simply deduct the cost of transactions by deducting the equivalent monetary amount of security with no additional cash. ERC20 transactions are different from that since users need to acquire Ethereum to pay for ERC20 transactions and to painstakingly study the reasons for which ETH is necessary for paying transactions fees; this extra step becomes daunting for novice who are new to cryptocurrencies and blockchains. 3. Other supplementary contracts are not compatible to the original ERC20 contract, necessitating forking or reissuance of new tokens ERC20 resembles a “second-class citizen” on the Ethereum blockchain. When it carries out contract-related interactions, it is not allowed to directly use the default functions to execute. Instead, it would require going through multiple cumbersome procedures and increase the level of difficulty of creating dApps. Adding to the disadvantages against existing internet competitors are the longer execution time of dApps and higher transaction fees compared to its Internet counterparts. Therefore, for some developers, in order to develop dApps more freely, free of the limitations of ERC20 tokens imposed by the Ethereum ecosystems, they choose to develop their own public chains and have their own say in the infrastructure, which at the end lowers the efficiency of writing dApps. Looking at the landscape of public chains in general, some public chains that are modeled after Ethereum have also adopted a similar design where its smart contract tokens also bear similar deficiencies. While the industry is growing over time, such deficiencies have plagued the entire industry.
C. QuarkChain’s multi-native token provides upgrades for smart contract token
To overcome this limitation in functionality, QuarkChain is now launching a unique multi-native token contract (referencing QCEP-5, QCEP-6), which attempts to resolve the problems appeared in smart contract tokens such as those appearing in ERC20. The tokens living on QuarkChain’s ecosystem have the same rights as those enjoyed by native tokens QKC and can take up more functional values such as contract deployment and payment of transaction fees than merely as an financial instrument. Developers and users no longer need to face the quagmire of two-tokens-with-different-rights and forsake developing and using smart contract tokens. QuarkChain’s multi-native token will lower the cost of development and learning, enabling more industry applications to appear. The Advantages of Multi-native Tokens On the QuarkChain mainnet, multinative tokens have the same status as that of QKC within the QuarkChain system; it can deploy contracts, cross chains, and pay for transaction fees if certain criteria are satisfied. Other than not being able to participate in governing the QKC network, native tokens can realize all functions of QKC, including cross-chain transfer of fees; it will also overcome the problem of inconvenience encountered by most of the DeFi. In future contracts, we will improve the functions of multinative tokens to be identical as that of QKC and eliminate the last barrier of applications of multinative token. How to Launch Native Tokens
At the beginning phase of project development, we will host regular auctions on the chain (weekly or monthly, TBD). Participants will need to bid using QKC and only one winning bidder will obtain the rights to mint tokens from this round of auction.
Once a token name has been taken by a winning bidder, it cannot be auctioned again. The only way to get the token name is to have its ownership transferred from the existing token owner.
At the end of the auction, if any participants in the community need to use the newly minted native tokens to pay for transaction fees, they can deposit a certain quantity of QKC as the reserve for transaction fees. When executing the transaction, the network will look up the transaction fee and the exchange rate between issuing amount and transaction fees and deduct the corresponding amount from the QKC reserve. The token economics will be determined by the winning bidder. If one would like to keep the total number of tokens constant over time, after issuing the tokens, the winning bidder can pass the right to token issuance to a system address.
The Design of Transactions Fees for Multi-native Token QCEP-6 contracts will be configured on each shard. The participants within the token community can choose to equip the token with the ability to pay for transaction fees. To enable this feature, community participants will need to provide QKC to be saved on system contracts whereby the system will convert QKC automatically for exchanging tokens. This conversion is analogous to exchanging foreign currencies from a bank. After conversion, the converted QKC will become the transaction fees for the miners. In terms of exchange rate, the QuarkChain mainnet allows users to specify the exchange rate between the multinative token and QKC. Any user can interact with the “universal native token manager” smart contract to propose exchange rate. The agreed exchange rate will convert multinative token into corresponding amount in QKC to pay for transaction fees. In this way, normal users would not require buying extra QKC to pay for transaction fees, making this process more convenient for all.
Estimated Time of Announcement
The first Multinative token will be announced soon. As for the time for Multinative token auction, please pay attention to our official channels for latest announcements. For more details:
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ELECTRONEUM’S MODERATED BLOCKCHAIN Q: What is a Moderated Blockchain? A: Electroneum’s new Moderated Blockchain (a type of permissioned blockchain that is at the qualitative level of IBM’s Hyperledger or Facebook’s announced Libra open ledger network) that has been uniquely and cleverly developed to provide Electroneum with a minimal but sufficient level of interference. This will allow the highly skilled engineering staff to supervise the distributed ledger which is maintained by a list of trusted validators. And this allows the tech team to detect anomalies or irregularities that could come from hackers attempting to breach our security, and immediately stop them preventing a double-spend or 51% attack. Because Electroneum controls the list of trusted validators, this empowers them to guarantee, and that is similar to IBM’s hyper ledger or that of Facebook’s Libra blockchain. Q: Why did you move to a Moderated Blockchain? A: To improve the functionality of Electroneum at the exchanges, allowing them to confirm deposit transactions faster and to protect the network from 51% attacks, and also Electroneum can decide to where the block rewards are rerouted ensuring that they are used to help improve the lives of the poorer in underdeveloped countries. Q: What is the role of blockchain in a permissioned network? A: It is essentially an immutable history of financial transactions. Electroneum’s Moderated Blockchain, which is a type of permissioned blockchain, unlike other decentralised cryptocurrency networks, can guarantee a tamper-proof system of transactional records. Q: What motivation would someone have to trade on a permissioned blockchain when their transaction could get rolled back, or worse still, never get confirmed? A: With Electroneum’s new Moderated Blockchain reorganisations can still occur but never will an irregular transaction actually be fully confirmed and then overwritten. Q: Is there any risk of manipulation with a moderated blockchain? A: There is a risk of manipulation if an authenticator key is leaked. However, the extent would be negligible and therefore not affect users, exchanges or miners. We developed a system to closely monitor the behaviour of both the network and miners to ensure any foul play is immediately crushed. Q: How is Electroneum’s Moderated Blockchain different to other decentralised blockchains? A: We have the authority to decide who mines the blocks and therefore, we can increase the likelihood that they are trusted validators. Q: Why doesn’t Electroneum move to a fully centralised blockchain? A: Our unique and cleverly created Moderated Blockchain is meant to have minimal interference to remove the risks and add protection whilst remaining decentralised to the point wherein the unlikely event that a meteor was to wipe out all of the Electroneum staff out of the face of the Earth by a meteor, ETN would not cease to exist. This because those nodes currently mining our blockchain or anybody else for that fact could swap out the codes and fork the network to take over control and guarantee the permanence of the cryptocurrency thus shielding our users from losses. Q: What is Proof of Responsibility or PoR? A: Proof of Responsibility, or PoR for short, is a new mining paradigm which obligates the miners to two primary responsibilities which are: 1) Maintain the integrity of the payment network, and 2) Spend the block rewards they receive responsibly to help poor people in line with Electroneum’s humanitarian agenda. Q: How does PoR compare to PoW or Proof of Work? A: PoR saves a lot of time and energy compared to PoW because instead of working with block validators overtime to prove or not that they’re reliable miners, we save time and potential adverse issues by hand-picking the miners ourselves. SECURITY AND 51% ATTACKS OR DOUBLE SPENDS Q: What is a 51% attack? A: It is when someone takes over 50% control of the hashing power of a cryptocurrency. Hackers usually use this to benefit themselves with double spends, which is a hard loss for the exchanges as well as users in many cases. Q: What IS an example of a 51% attack? A: You may know 51% attacks better from both Bitcoin Cash in 2018 and Ethereum Classic in 2019, where hackers acquired more than 50 percent of the hashing power on those networks and getting away with a significant loot. Q: What is hashing power? A: This is the rate with which the mining rigs solve mathematical problems. Q: Why doesn’t Electroneum require large amounts of hashing power anymore? A: The Electroneum network difficulty automatically adjusts to maintain the target block time of two minutes. Regardless of the magnitude of the hashing power in Electroneum’s network will be kept to a two-minute target block time. Q: Is Electroneum now insusceptible to a 51% attack? A: We’re no longer susceptible to a 51% attack – making us one of the most secure blockchains in existence today. Q: What if someone hack one authenticated miner? A: In the unlikely event that hackers were to succeed in breaching the security of an authenticated miner, the authentication key of that miner would not be accessible to the hacker in itself because of the unique way our blockchain team has come up to shield it from being discovered. The hacker, therefore, would not be able to affect the network because they would be unable to mine sequential blocks. And because of the uniqueness of the Moderated Blockchain, our moderating network layer would immediately detect the breach and rescind the rights of that miner. Q: What if two or more hacks? A: If one hack is highly unlikely due to two security breaches being necessary, two hacks are exponentially harder to achieve. But if it were to happen, the keys they may have stolen limit the hash rate of the miner. This means that if somebody were to take the code and run it on the highest-powered mining machine, it would still produce the same hash rate as it would in the lowest powered mining rig making it impossible for them to control over 50% of the network’s hash rate because of the way our Moderated Blockchain is set up. This also ensures the NGOs can run an Electroneum mining node on hardware with which their tech teams are familiar. Q: How do you judge how responsible the miners are? A: We look at how many blocks they are mining compared to how many blocks they are expected to mine going by the hashing power allotted to them. Q: What happens after a mining node has been shut off? A: Simply, it stops mining and needs to be restarted and then retype or re-enter the authentication key. NEW TRUSTED MINERS Q: Who are the miners? A: We have chosen vocational NGOs as trusted mining partners who are also trustworthy organisations. We have done due diligence to ensure they are transparent, honest, and aligned with our vision to work within the developing world. We have made sure that they also want to accompany us in our goal to expand our Gig Fair project, which is aimed at helping provide people in the poorest regions of the world with an income opportunity and the opportunity to attain skills and means to generate an income that will empower them to live better. The NGOs that we’ve selected are trusted brands that have proven track records in helping people. Cryptocurrency is at its early stages and is met with skepticism by many people and entities around the world as well as in the developing world. So, our mission is to educate these NGOs about cryptocurrency so that they can, in turn, convey the message of the benefits of crypto, particularly ETN, to people in the developing world and make them feel more confident to use crypto, which ultimately will help spur crypto’s mass adoption. Q: Why are these NGOs anonymous (initially)? A: Because they themselves have decided to remain anonymous over concerns of how cryptocurrency could reflect on their organisations. Q: What do NGOs do for the project? A: They validate the blocks and rewarded for this and take the proceeds to help people? Q: Where are the NGO’s and Charities located? A: For now, locations of the NGOs are being kept undisclosed for security reasons until they themselves decide they if they want to make public that information. Q: Five million ETN or about $22,500 at the then valuation was paid out daily before. How much is being paid out now? A: Because the block rewards have been reduced by a whopping 75% creating scarcity which is a good thing to extend longevity, currently just over 1.2 million ETN or about $5,300 is being paid out in block rewards. Q: Can we see who is mining and how much they are mining? A: The block rewards will still be visible on the blockchain explorer and those with sufficient technical knowledge will be able to see the different miners signing blocks with different mining keys. But Electroneum is not forcing the NGOs to reveal their identities because they are still going through a learning curve and when they understand crypto and experience the benefits first-hand, they will more than likely reveal themselves. Q: Where are their mining rigs stored? A: We have suggested that mining rigs be run in the cloud to ensure uptime; however, ultimately, it is up to the NGOs themselves decide where their equipment is hosted. It is essential to point out that we have reduced energy and hash rates by a millionfold as such a standard rack-mounted server that you would find in any business today is sufficient to run an Electroneum mining node. Q: Who setup their mining rigs? A: At this stage, all mining rigs have been set up by the Electroneum team as this is the first foray for NGOs into the cryptocurrency mining space. Q: Who is managing their mining rigs? A: The mining rigs are self-sufficient and need very little if any, technical support, however, a moderator layer monitors the new Moderated Blockchain to ensure the mining rigs are online and benefit the network. If we were to detect a mining rig going offline, we would inform the NGO and provide assistance where required. Q:How will NGOs use their ETN (from mining blocks)? A: The NGOs, initially, almost certainly convert the ETN to USD or other currencies because they have always used fiat to deliver their donations and assistance because that is what they are used to doing. Once they see the benefits and value of ETN they may start using it on the ground to amongst the people they help. We have deliberately targeted NGOs that are in regions that were we are imminent to enable airtime top-ups directly with ETN from within the Electroneum mobile app. FUTURE PROGRESS & CORPORATE PARTNERSHIPS Q: How will this initiative affect corporate partnerships moving forward? A: Because the network is more secure, Electroneum as a platform will be more attractive as a platform in the eyes of potential partners. Q: How will it help to grow our on-the-ground initiatives? A: The NGO’s we’re working with will be in the regions we’re targeting on the ground. So, this will be contributing to the eco-system, the NGO’s will be able to spend their ETN on education through the Gig Economy too. Q: Can new NGOs apply to mine? A: I If you know or are an NGO that focuses on vocational training and education, and that it is within the developing world, then we would love to hear from you via our community forum. Q: How will the 75% reduction in the block reward benefit the community? A: Reducing the block rewards means ETN ‘s expands the longevity of the coin by making ETN scarcer and thus lengthening the duration of the emission of coins.
You have an obligation to protect your property. Since it is protection, it is necessary to be able to face harsh conditions. The so-called obligation refers to relying on yourself and not on anything else, including not relying on the state. At the 315 party, Chinese traditional holiday, hit the Bitcoin head. Some people like to compare Bitcoin and gold together, which is actually wrong. "Bitcoin is a safe-haven asset" is a false proposition. Bitcoin has the highest volatility in the world. How can such a high volatility asset be called a safe-haven asset? ——315 party Yes, cryptocurrencies are too volatile to be suitable for safe-haven assets, but suitable for refuge funds. Asylum funds refer to the wealth that is deprived of when a person is in distress, the property is illegally deprived, or the wealth cannot be legally protected. Asylum funds are more life-saving. This is not the same as safe-haven funds. Safe-haven funds refer to wealth that can keep assets from depreciating under certain systemic risks. Hedge funds are not targeted at specific individuals. We often imagine gold as a safe haven under geopolitical instability. At the beginning of this year, under the new crown virus epidemic, people generally accumulated a lot of food, and even held guns legally. This is asylum thinking, ensuring that you can survive the risks. Peace is in danger, and we need to have asylum thinking in order to face the unpredictable risks in this complex society. What are we going to avoid? First of all, we must understand the potential difficulties we will encounter. The essence of the insurance industry lies in this, calculating the possible risks and preparing for them. Generally speaking, asylum funds are generally arranged outside the insurance, that is, after the insurance is bought, you should consider the asylum funds. Like preventing fires, serious illnesses, and so on, you have to hand it over to insurance. Our country is very safe, and robberies are too far away from us. But many countries may not have such security guarantees. In many countries, insurance covers robberies on a broad scale. Our country is different. Compared with most countries, born in today's China, we need to avoid much less. Our commercial civilization is sufficiently developed and insurance has solved most of the potential difficulties. In our country, the need for asylum funds is relatively small. We are a rich country. Some difficulties cannot be covered by insurance, that is, the situation of depriving property according to law, which is a difficulty for specific individuals. This often involves the evaluation of justice, and we do not want to evaluate the scope of justice in depth. Let us not just call for the complete deprivation of all the property of the bad guys, which is not conducive to building a just society. Any force that cannot be checked and balance is a disaster for justice, including justice itself. We do not support the bad guys in possession of weapons against justice. The real need for asylum is that in many countries, legal civilization has not yet been built, and there are always some dark corners of the earth where civilization has not yet arrived. Just like many countries in North Korea, the Middle East and Africa. In other cases, this civilization is different from the other civilization. It is lawful on one side and deprived of it on the other. Snowden is a case. In a civilized United States, Snowden is a crime, but in many countries he is regarded as a hero. Snowden is a crypto digital currency enthusiast. He also wrote a few days ago that he wanted to buy Bitcoin. Civilizations can be misplaced, and cryptocurrencies can fix it. Refuge funds must be hidden. The encrypted system of encrypted digital currency has no physical form and T + 0 liquidity, which can be circulated from person to person, difficult to be tracked, and there is no capital limit, that is, no lower limit or upper limit. These characteristics make Bitcoin and others an effective refuge fund. We are eager for wealth from the bottom of our hearts, but the society as a whole has very strangely demonized money. Qiu Fu is a very common mindset. As an adult who is responsible for yourself and your family, at least add a hidden item to your balance sheet. The anonymous and no physical form of encrypted digital currency is suitable for this task. Converting your wealth to part of the encrypted digital currency and withdrawing it to multiple addresses can perfectly hide your wealth. You can buy bitcoins on multiple exchanges, even if you are buying bitcoin on an exchange that requires real-name authentication. After purchasing you distribute Bitcoin to any address. Guarantee that no one will ever know your specific wealth. And if you can find someone who trades OTC, it's more perfect. There is also no need for a private bank and expensive safes to store Bitcoin. You can encrypt and package your Bitcoin wallet and store it in multiple mailboxes or online disks. Guarantee that you are in any corner of the world, as long as you have the Internet and a smartphone, you can exchange Bitcoin into local currency. Asylum funds can accept volatility. Bitcoin plunged 50% at every turn, but it was better than nothing. Asylum funds pay attention to life-saving, it is best to leave a bite to eat, not for your enjoyment. When choosing asylum funds, it is necessary to choose mainstream coins that will not return to zero as much as possible. Remember that you have an obligation to protect your property and do not rely on any third party.
Which are your Top 5 favourite coins out of the Top 100? An analysis.
I am putting together my investment portfolio for 2018 and made a complete summary of the current Top 100. Interestingly, I noticed that all coins can be categorized into 12 markets. Which markets do you think will play the biggest role in the coming year? Here is a complete overview of all coins in an excel sheet including name, market, TPS, risk profile, time since launch (negative numbers mean that they are launching that many months in the future) and market cap. You can also sort by all of these fields of course. Coins written in bold are the strongest contenders within their market either due to having the best technology or having a small market cap and still excellent technology and potential. https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1s8PHcNvvjuy848q18py_CGcu8elRGQAUIf86EYh4QZo/edit#gid=0 The 12 markets are
Currency 13 coins
Platform 25 coins
Ecosystem 9 coins
Privacy 10 coins
Currency Exchange Tool 8 coins
Gaming & Gambling 5 coins
Misc 15 coins
Social Network 4 coins
Fee Token 3 coins
Decentralized Data Storage 4 coins
Cloud Computing 3 coins
Stable Coin 2 coins
Before we look at the individual markets, we need to take a look of the overall market and its biggest issue scalability first: Cryptocurrencies aim to be a decentralized currency that can be used worldwide. Its goal is to replace dollar, Euro, Yen, all FIAT currencies worldwide. The coin that will achieve that will be worth several trillion dollars. Bitcoin can only process 7 transactions per second (TPS). In order to replace all FIAT, it would need to perform at at least VISA levels, which usually processes around 3,000 TPS, up to 25,000 TPS during peak times and a maximum of 64,000 TPS. That means that this cryptocurrency would need to be able to perform at least several thousand TPS. However, a ground breaking technology should not look at current technology to set a goal for its use, i.e. estimating the number of emails sent in 1990 based on the number of faxes sent wasn’t a good estimate. For that reason, 10,000 TPS is the absolute baseline for a cryptocurrency that wants to replace FIAT. This brings me to IOTA, which wants to connect all 80 billion IoT devices that are expected to exist by 2025, which constantly communicate with each other, creating 80 billion or more transactions per second. This is the benchmark that cryptocurrencies should be aiming for. Currently, 8 billion devices are connected to the Internet. With its Lightning network recently launched, Bitcoin is realistically looking at 50,000 possible soon. Other notable cryptocurrencies besides IOTA and Bitcoin are Nano with 7,000 TPS already tested, Dash with several billion TPS possible with Masternodes, Neo, LISK and RHOC with 100,000 TPS by 2020, Ripple with 50,000 TPS, Ethereum with 10,000 with Sharding. However, it needs to be said that scalability usually goes at the cost of decentralization and security. So, it needs to be seen, which of these technologies can prove itself resilient and performant. Without further ado, here are the coins of the first market
Market 1 - Currency:
Bitcoin: 1st generation blockchain with currently bad scalability currently, though the implementation of the Lightning Network looks promising and could alleviate most scalability concerns, scalability and high energy use.
Ripple: Centralized currency that might become very successful due to tight involvement with banks and cross-border payments for financial institutions; banks and companies like Western Union and Moneygram (who they are currently working with) as customers customers. However, it seems they are aiming for more decentralization now.https://ripple.com/dev-blog/decentralization-strategy-update/. Has high TPS due to Proof of Correctness algorithm.
Bitcoin Cash: Bitcoin fork with the difference of having an 8 times bigger block size, making it 8 times more scalable than Bitcoin currently. Further block size increases are planned. Only significant difference is bigger block size while big blocks lead to further problems that don't seem to do well beyond a few thousand TPS. Opponents to a block size argue that increasing the block size limit is unimaginative, offers only temporary relief, and damages decentralization by increasing costs of participation. In order to preserve decentralization, system requirements to participate should be kept low. To understand this, consider an extreme example: very big blocks (1GB+) would require data center level resources to validate the blockchain. This would preclude all but the wealthiest individuals from participating.Community seems more open than Bitcoin's though.
Litecoin : Little brother of Bitcoin. Bitcoin fork with different mining algorithm but not much else.Copies everything that Bitcoin does pretty much. Lack of real innovation.
Dash: Dash (Digital Cash) is a fork of Bitcoin and focuses on user ease. It has very fast transactions within seconds, low fees and uses Proof of Service from Masternodes for consensus. They are currently building a system called Evolution which will allow users to send money using usernames and merchants will find it easy to integrate Dash using the API. You could say Dash is trying to be a PayPal of cryptocurrencies. Currently, cryptocurrencies must choose between decentralization, speed, scalability and can pick only 2. With Masternodes, Dash picked speed and scalability at some cost of decentralization, since with Masternodes the voting power is shifted towards Masternodes, which are run by Dash users who own the most Dash.
IOTA: 3rd generation blockchain called Tangle, which has a high scalability, no fees and instant transactions. IOTA aims to be the connective layer between all 80 billion IOT devices that are expected to be connected to the Internet in 2025, possibly creating 80 billion transactions per second or 800 billion TPS, who knows. However, it needs to be seen if the Tangle can keep up with this scalability and iron out its security issues that have not yet been completely resolved.
Nano: 3rd generation blockchain called Block Lattice with high scalability, no fees and instant transactions. Unlike IOTA, Nano only wants to be a payment processor and nothing else, for now at least. With Nano, every user has their own blockchain and has to perform a small amount of computing for each transaction, which makes Nano perform at 300 TPS with no problems and 7,000 TPS have also been tested successfully. Very promising 3rd gen technology and strong focus on only being the fastest currency without trying to be everything.
Decred: As mining operations have grown, Bitcoin’s decision-making process has become more centralized, with the largest mining companies holding large amounts of power over the Bitcoin improvement process. Decred focuses heavily on decentralization with their PoW Pos hybrid governance system to become what Bitcoin was set out to be. They will soon implement the Lightning Network to scale up. While there do not seem to be more differences to Bitcoin besides the novel hybrid consensus algorithm, which Ethereum, Aeternity and Bitcoin Atom are also implementing, the welcoming and positive Decred community and professoinal team add another level of potential to the coin.
Aeternity: We’ve seen recently, that it’s difficult to scale the execution of smart contracts on the blockchain. Crypto Kitties is a great example. Something as simple as creating and trading unique assets on Ethereum bogged the network down when transaction volume soared. Ethereum and Zilliqa address this problem with Sharding. Aeternity focuses on increasing the scalability of smart contracts and dapps by moving smart contracts off-chain. Instead of running on the blockchain, smart contracts on Aeternity run in private state channels between the parties involved in the contracts. State channels are lines of communication between parties in a smart contract. They don’t touch the blockchain unless they need to for adjudication or transfer of value. Because they’re off-chain, state channel contracts can operate much more efficiently. They don’t need to pay the network for every time they compute and can also operate with greater privacy. An important aspect of smart contract and dapp development is access to outside data sources. This could mean checking the weather in London, score of a football game, or price of gold. Oracles provide access to data hosted outside the blockchain. In many blockchain projects, oracles represent a security risk and potential point of failure, since they tend to be singular, centralized data streams. Aeternity proposes decentralizing oracles with their oracle machine. Doing so would make outside data immutable and unchangeable once it reaches Aeternity’s blockchain. Of course, the data source could still be hacked, so Aeternity implements a prediction market where users can bet on the accuracy and honesty of incoming data from various oracles.It also uses prediction markets for various voting and verification purposes within the platform. Aeternity’s network runs on on a hybrid of proof of work and proof of stake. Founded by a long-time crypto-enthusiast and early colleague of Vitalik Buterin, Yanislav Malahov. Promising concept though not product yet
Bitcoin Atom: Atomic Swaps and hybrid consenus. This looks like the only Bitcoin clone that actually is looking to innovate next to Bitcoin Cash.
Dogecoin: Litecoin fork, fantastic community, though lagging behind a bit in technology.
Bitcoin Gold: A bit better security than bitcoin through ASIC resistant algorithm, but that's it. Not that interesting.
Digibyte: Digibyte's PoS blockchain is spread over a 100,000+ servers, phones, computers, and nodes across the globe, aiming for the ultimate level of decentralization. DigiByte rebalances the load between the five mining algorithms by adjusting the difficulty of each so one algorithm doesn’t become dominant. The algorithm's asymmetric difficulty has gained notoriety and been deployed in many other blockchains.DigiByte’s adoption over the past four years has been slow. It’s still a relatively obscure currency compared its competitors. The DigiByte website offers a lot of great marketing copy and buzzwords. However, there’s not much technical information about what they have planned for the future. You could say Digibyte is like Bitcoin, but with shorter blocktimes and a multi-algorithm. However, that's not really a difference big enough to truly set themselves apart from Bitcoin, since these technologies could be implemented by any blockchain without much difficulty. Their decentralization is probably their strongest asset, however, this also change quickly if the currency takes off and big miners decide to go into Digibyte.
Bitcoin Diamond Asic resistant Bitcoin and Copycat
Market 2 - Platform
Most of the cryptos here have smart contracts and allow dapps (Decentralized apps) to be build on their platform and to use their token as an exchange of value between dapp services.
Ethereum: 2nd generation blockchain that allows the use of smart contracts. Bad scalability currently, though this concern could be alleviated by the soon to be implemented Lightning Network aka Plasma and its Sharding concept.
EOS: Promising technology that wants to be able do everything, from smart contracts like Ethereum, scalability similar to Nano with 1000 tx/second + near instant transactions and zero fees, to also wanting to be a platform for dapps. However, EOS doesn't have a product yet and everything is just promises still. Highly overvalued right now. However, there are lots of red flags, have dumped $500 million Ether over the last 2 months and possibly bought back EOS to increase the size of their ICO, which has been going on for over a year and has raised several billion dollars. All in all, their market cap is way too high for that and not even having a product.
Cardano: Similar to Ethereum/EOS, however, only promises made with no delivery yet, highly overrated right now. Interesting concept though. Market cap way too high for not even having a product. Somewhat promising technology.
VeChain: Singapore-based project that’s building a business enterprise platform and inventory tracking system. Examples are verifying genuine luxury goods and food supply chains. Has one of the strongest communities in the crypto world. Most hyped token of all, with merit though.
Neo: Neo is a platform, similar to Eth, but more extensive, allowing dapps and smart contracts, but with a different smart contract gas system, consensus mechanism (PoS vs. dBfT), governance model, fixed vs unfixed supply, expensive contracts vs nearly free contracts, different ideologies for real world adoption. There are currently only 9 nodes, each of which are being run by a company/entity hand selected by the NEO council (most of which are located in china) and are under contract. This means that although the locations of the nodes may differ, ultimately the neo council can bring them down due to their legal contracts. In fact this has been done in the past when the neo council was moving 50 million neo that had been locked up. Also dbft (or neo's implmentation of it) has failed underload causing network outages during major icos. The first step in decentralization is that the NEO Counsel will select trusted nodes (Universities, business partners, etc.) and slowly become less centralized that way. The final step in decentralization will be allowing NEO holders to vote for new nodes, similar to a DPoS system (ARK/EOS/LISK). NEO has a regulation/government friendly ideology. Finally they are trying to work undewith the Chinese government in regards to regulations. If for some reason they wanted it shut down, they could just shut it down.
Stellar: PoS system, similar goals as Ripple, but more of a platform than only a currency. 80% of Stellar are owned by Stellar.org still, making the currency centralized.
Ethereum classic: Original Ethereum that decided not to fork after a hack. The Ethereum that we know is its fork. Uninteresing, because it has a lot of less resources than Ethereum now and a lot less community support.
Ziliqa: Zilliqa is building a new way of sharding. 2400 tpx already tested, 10,000 tps soon possible by being linearly scalable with the number of nodes. That means, the more nodes, the faster the network gets. They are looking at implementing privacy as well.
QTUM: Enables Smart contracts on the Bitcoin blockchain. Useful.
Icon: Korean ethereum. Decentralized application platform that's building communities in partnership with banks, insurance providers, hospitals, and universities. Focused on ID verification and payments. No big differentiators to the other 20 Ethereums, except that is has a product. That is a plus. Maybe cheap alternative to Ethereum.
LISK: Lisk's difference to other BaaS is that side chains are independent to the main chain and have to have their own nodes. Similar to neo whole allows dapps to deploy their blockchain to. However, Lisk is currently somewhat centralized with a small group of members owning more than 50% of the delegated positions. Lisk plans to change the consensus algorithm for that reason in the near future.
Rchain: Similar to Ethereum with smart contract, though much more scalable at an expected 40,000 TPS and possible 100,000 TPS. Not launched yet. No product launched yet, though promising technology. Not overvalued, probably at the right price right now.
ARDR: Similar to Lisk. Ardor is a public blockchain platform that will allow people to utilize the blockchain technology of Nxt through the use of child chains. A child chain, which is a ‘light’ blockchain that can be customized to a certain extent, is designed to allow easy self-deploy for your own blockchain. Nxt claims that users will "not need to worry" about security, as that part is now handled by the main chain (Ardor). This is the chief innovation of Ardor. Ardor was evolved from NXT by the same company. NEM started as a NXT clone.
Ontology: Similar to Neo. Interesting coin
Bytom: Bytom is an interactive protocol of multiple byte assets. Heterogeneous byte-assets (indigenous digital currency, digital assets) that operate in different forms on the Bytom Blockchain and atomic assets (warrants, securities, dividends, bonds, intelligence information, forecasting information and other information that exist in the physical world) can be registered, exchanged, gambled and engaged in other more complicated and contract-based interoperations via Bytom.
Nxt: Similar to Lisk
Stratis: Different to LISK, Stratis will allow businesses and organizations to create their own blockchain according to their own needs, but secured on the parent Stratis chain. Stratis’s simple interface will allow organizations to quickly and easily deploy and/or test blockchain functionality of the Ethereum, BitShares, BitCoin, Lisk and Stratis environements.
Status: Status provides access to all of Ethereum’s decentralized applications (dapps) through an app on your smartphone. It opens the door to mass adoption of Ethereum dapps by targeting the fastest growing computer segment in the world – smartphone users.16. Ark: Fork of Lisk that focuses on a smaller feature set. Ark wallets can only vote for one delegate at a time which forces delegates to compete against each other and makes cartel formations incredibly hard, if not impossible.
Neblio: Similar to Neo, but 30x smaller market cap.
NEM: Is similar to Neo No marketing team, very high market cap for little clarilty what they do.
Bancor: Bancor is a Decentralized Liquidity Network that allows you to hold any Ethereum token and convert it to any other token in the network, with no counter party, at an automatically calculated price, using a simple web wallet.
Dragonchain: The Purpose of DragonChain is to help companies quickly and easily incorporate blockchain into their business applications. Many companies might be interested in making this transition because of the benefits associated with serving clients over a blockchain – increased efficiency and security for transactions, a reduction of costs from eliminating potential fraud and scams, etc.
Skycoin: Transactions with zero fees that take apparently two seconds, unlimited transaction rate, no need for miners and block rewards, low power usage, all of the usual cryptocurrency technical vulnerabilities fixed, a consensus mechanism superior to anything that exists, resistant to all conceivable threats (government censorship, community infighting, cybenucleaconventional warfare, etc). Skycoin has their own consensus algorithm known as Obelisk written and published academically by an early developer of Ethereum. Obelisk is a non-energy intensive consensus algorithm based on a concept called ‘web of trust dynamics’ which is completely different to PoW, PoS, and their derivatives. Skywire, the flagship application of Skycoin, has the ambitious goal of decentralizing the internet at the hardware level and is about to begin the testnet in April. However, this is just one of the many facets of the Skycoin ecosystem. Skywire will not only provide decentralized bandwidth but also storage and computation, completing the holy trinity of commodities essential for the new internet. Skycion a smear campaign launched against it, though they seem legit and reliable. Thus, they are probably undervalued.
Market 3 - Ecosystem
The 3rd market with 11 coins is comprised of ecosystem coins, which aim to strengthen the ease of use within the crypto space through decentralized exchanges, open standards for apps and more
Nebulas: Similar to how Google indexes webpages Nebulas will index blockchain projects, smart contracts & data using the Nebulas rank algorithm that sifts & sorts the data. Developers rewarded NAS to develop & deploy on NAS chain. Nebulas calls this developer incentive protocol – basically rewards are issued based on how often dapp/contract etc. is used, the more the better the rewards and Proof of devotion. Works like DPoS except the best, most economically incentivised developers (Bookkeeppers) get the forging spots. Ensuring brains stay with the project (Cross between PoI & PoS). 2,400 TPS+, DAG used to solve the inter-transaction dependencies in the PEE (Parallel Execution Environment) feature, first crypto Wallet that supports the Lightening Network.
Waves: Decentralized exchange and crowdfunding platform. Let’s companies and projects to issue and manage their own digital coin tokens to raise money.
Salt: Leveraging blockchain assets to secure cash loands. Plans to offer cash loans in traditional currencies, backed by your cryptocurrency assets. Allows lenders worldwide to skip credit checks for easier access to affordable loans.
CHAINLINK: ChainLink is a decentralized oracle service, the first of its kind. Oracles are defined as an ‘agent’ that finds and verifies real-world occurrences and submits this information to a blockchain to be used in smart contracts.With ChainLink, smart contract users can use the network’s oracles to retrieve data from off-chain application program interfaces (APIs), data pools, and other resources and integrate them into the blockchain and smart contracts. Basically, ChainLink takes information that is external to blockchain applications and puts it on-chain. The difference to Aeternity is that Chainlink deploys the smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain while Aeternity has its own chain.
WTC: Combines blockchain with IoT to create a management system for supply chains Interesting
Ethos unifyies all cryptos. Ethos is building a multi-cryptocurrency phone wallet. The team is also building an investment diversification tool and a social network
Aion: Aion is the token that pays for services on the Aeternity platform.
USDT: is no cryptocurrency really, but a replacement for dollar for trading After months of asking for proof of dollar backing, still no response from Tether.
Market 4 - Privacy
The 4th market are privacy coins. As you might know, Bitcoin is not anonymous. If the IRS or any other party asks an exchange who is the identity behind a specific Bitcoin address, they know who you are and can track back almost all of the Bitcoin transactions you have ever made and all your account balances. Privacy coins aim to prevent exactly that through address fungability, which changes addresses constantly, IP obfuscation and more. There are 2 types of privacy coins, one with completely privacy and one with optional privacy. Optional Privacy coins like Dash and Nav have the advantage of more user friendliness over completely privacy coins such as Monero and Enigma.
Monero: Currently most popular privacy coin, though with a very high market cap. Since their privacy is all on chain, all prior transactions would be deanonymized if their protocol is ever cracked. This requires a quantum computing attack though. PIVX is better in that regard.
Zcash: A decentralized and open-source cryptocurrency that hide the sender, recipient, and value of transactions. Offers users the option to make transactions public later for auditing. Decent privacy coin, though no default privacy
Verge: Calls itself privacy coin without providing private transactions, multiple problems over the last weeks has a toxic community, and way too much hype for what they have.
Bytecoin: First privacy-focused cryptocurrency with anonymous transactions. Bytecoin’s code was later adapted to create Monero, the more well-known anonymous cryptocurrency. Has several scam accusations, 80% pre-mine, bad devs, bad tech
Bitcoin Private: A merge fork of Bitcoin and Zclassic with Zclassic being a fork of Zcash with the difference of a lack of a founders fee required to mine a valid block. This promotes a fair distribution, preventing centralized coin ownership and control. Bitcoin private offers the optional ability to keep the sender, receiver, and amount private in a given transaction. However, this is already offered by several good privacy coins (Monero, PIVX) and Bitcoin private doesn't offer much more beyond this.
Komodo: The Komodo blockchain platform uses Komodo’s open-source cryptocurrency for doing transparent, anonymous, private, and fungible transactions. They are then made ultra-secure using Bitcoin’s blockchain via a Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW) protocol and decentralized crowdfunding (ICO) platform to remove middlemen from project funding. Offers services for startups to create and manage their own Blockchains.
PIVX: As a fork of Dash, PIVX uses an advanced implementation of the Zerocoin protocol to provide it’s privacy. This is a form of zeroknowledge proofs, which allow users to spend ‘Zerocoins’ that have no link back to them. Unlike Zcash u have denominations in PIVX, so they can’t track users by their payment amount being equal to the amount of ‘minted’ coins, because everyone uses the same denominations. PIVX is also implementing Bulletproofs, just like Monero, and this will take care of arguably the biggest weakness of zeroknowledge protocols: the trusted setup.
Zcoin: PoW cryptocurrency. Private financial transactions, enabled by the Zerocoin Protocol. Zcoin is the first full implementation of the Zerocoin Protocol, which allows users to have complete privacy via Zero-Knowledge cryptographic proofs.
Enigma: Monero is to Bitcoin what enigma is to Ethereum. Enigma is for making the data used in smart contracts private. More of a platform for dapps than a currency like Monero. Very promising.
Navcoin: Like bitcoin but with added privacy and pos and 1,170 tps, but only because of very short 30 second block times. Though, privacy is optional, but aims to be more user friendly than Monero. However, doesn't really decide if it wants to be a privacy coin or not. Same as Zcash.Strong technology, non-shady team.
Tenx: Raised 80 million, offers cryptocurrency-linked credit cards that let you spend virtual money in real life. Developing a series of payment platforms to make spending cryptocurrency easier. However, the question is if full privacy coins will be hindered in growth through government regulations and optional privacy coins will become more successful through ease of use and no regulatory hindrance.
Market 5 - Currency Exchange Tool
Due to the sheer number of different cryptocurrencies, exchanging one currency for the other it still cumbersome. Further, merchants don’t want to deal with overcluttered options of accepting cryptocurrencies. This is where exchange tool like Req come in, which allow easy and simple exchange of currencies.
Cryptonex: Fiat and currency exchange between various blockchain services, similar to REQ.
QASH: Qash is used to fuel its liquid platform which will be an exchange that will distribute their liquidity pool. Its product, the Worldbook is a multi-exchange order book that matches crypto to crypto, and crypto to fiat and the reverse across all currencies. E.g., someone is selling Bitcoin is USD on exchange1 not owned by Quoine and someone is buying Bitcoin in EURO on exchange 2 not owned by Quoine. If the forex conversions and crypto conversions match then the trade will go through and the Worldbook will match it, it'll make the sale and the purchase on either exchange and each user will get what they wanted, which means exchanges with lower liquidity if they join the Worldbook will be able to fill orders and take trade fees they otherwise would miss out on.They turned it on to test it a few months ago for an hour or so and their exchange was the top exchange in the world by 4x volume for the day because all Worldbook trades ran through it. Binance wants BNB to be used on their one exchange. Qash wants their QASH token embedded in all of their partners. More info here https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/8a8lnwhich_are_your_top_5_favourite_coins_out_of_the/dwyjcbb/?context=3
Kyber: network Exchange between cryptocurrencies, similar to REQ. Features automatic coin conversions for payments. Also offers payment tools for developers and a cryptocurrency wallet.
Achain: Building a boundless blockchain world like Req .
Req: Exchange between cryptocurrencies.
Bitshares: Exchange between cryptocurrencies. Noteworthy are the 1.5 second average block times and throughput potential of 100,000 transactions per second with currently 2,400 TPS having been proven. However, bitshares had several Scam accusations in the past.
Loopring: A protocol that will enable higher liquidity between exchanges and personal wallets.
ZRX: Open standard for dapps. Open, permissionless protocol allowing for ERC20 tokens to be traded on the Ethereum blockchain. In 0x protocol, orders are transported off-chain, massively reducing gas costs and eliminating blockchain bloat. Relayers help broadcast orders and collect a fee each time they facilitate a trade. Anyone can build a relayer.
Market 6 - Gaming
With an industry size of $108B worldwide, Gaming is one of the largest markets in the world. For sure, cryptocurrencies will want to have a share of that pie.
Storm: Mobile game currency on a platform with 9 million players.
Fun: A platform for casino operators to host trustless, provably-fair gambling through the use of smart contracts, as well as creating their own implementation of state channels for scalability.
Electroneum: Mobile game currency They have lots of technical problems, such as several 51% attacks
Wax: Marketplace to trade in-game items
Market 7 - Misc
There are various markets being tapped right now. They are all summed up under misc.
OMG: Omise is designed to enable financial services for people without bank accounts. It works worldwide and with both traditional money and cryptocurrencies.
Power ledger: Australian blockchain-based cryptocurrency and energy trading platform that allows for decentralized selling and buying of renewable energy. Unique market and rather untapped market in the crypto space.
Populous: A platform that connects business owners and invoice buyers without middlemen. Invoice sellers get cash flow to fund their business and invoice buyers earn interest. Similar to OMG, small market.
Monacoin: The first Japanese cryptocurrency. Focused on micro-transactions and based on a popular internet meme of a type-written cat. This makes it similar to Dogecoin. Very niche, tiny market.
Revain: Legitimizing reviews via the blockchain. Interesting concept, though market not as big.
Augur: Platform to forecast and make wagers on the outcome of real-world events (AKA decentralized predictions). Uses predictions for a “wisdom of the crowd” search engine. Not launched yet.
Substratum: Revolutionzing hosting industry via per request billing as a decentralized internet hosting system. Uses a global network of private computers to create the free and open internet of the future. Participants earn cryptocurrency. Interesting concept.
Veritaseum: Is supposed to be a peer to peer gateway, though it looks like very much like a scam.
TRON: Tronix is looking to capitalize on ownership of internet data to content creators. However, they plagiarized their white paper, which is a no go. They apologized, so it needs to be seen how they will conduct themselves in the future. Extremely high market cap for not having a product, nor proof of concept.
Syscoin: A cryptocurrency with a decentralized marketplace that lets people buy and sell products directly without third parties. Trying to remove middlemen like eBay and Amazon.
Hshare: Most likely scam because of no code changes, most likely pump and dump scheme, dead community.
BAT: An Ethereum-based token that can be exchanged between content creators, users, and advertisers. Decentralized ad-network that pays based on engagement and attention.
Dent: Decentralizeed exchange of mobile data, enabling mobile data to be marketed, purchased or distributed, so that users can quickly buy or sell data from any user to another one.
Ncash: End to end encrypted Identification system for retailers to better serve their customers .
Factom Secure record-keeping system that allows companies to store their data directly on the Blockchain. The goal is to make records more transparent and trustworthy .
Market 8 - Social network
Web 2.0 is still going strong and Web 3.0 is not going to ignore it. There are several gaming tokens already out there and a few with decent traction already, such as Steem, which is Reddit with voting through money is a very interesting one.
Mithril: As users create content via social media, they will be rewarded for their contribution, the better the contribution, the more they will earn
Steem: Like Reddit, but voting with money. Already launched product and Alexa rank 1,000 Thumbs up.
Rdd: Reddcoin makes the process of sending and receiving money fun and rewarding for everyone. Reddcoin is dedicated to one thing – tipping on social networks as a way to bring cryptocurrency awareness and experience to the general public.
Kin: Token for the platform Kik. Kik has a massive user base of 400 million people. Replacing paying with FIAT with paying with KIN might get this token to mass adoption very quickly.
Market 9 - Fee token
Popular exchanges realized that they can make a few billion dollars more by launching their own token. Owning these tokens gives you a reduction of trading fees. Very handy and BNB (Binance Coin) has been one of the most resilient tokens, which have withstood most market drops over the last weeks and was among the very few coins that could show growth.
BNB: Fee token for Binance
Gas: Not a Fee token for an exchange, but it is a dividend paid out on Neo and a currency that can be used to purchase services for dapps.
Kucoin: Fee token for Kucoin
Market 10 - Decentralized Data Storage
Currently, data storage happens with large companies or data centers that are prone to failure or losing data. Decentralized data storage makes loss of data almost impossible by distributing your files to numerous clients that hold tiny pieces of your data. Remember Torrents? Torrents use a peer-to-peer network. It is similar to that. Many users maintain copies of the same file, when someone wants a copy of that file, they send a request to the peer-to-peer network., users who have the file, known as seeds, send fragments of the file to the requester., he requester receives many fragments from many different seeds, and the torrent software recompiles these fragments to form the original file.
Gbyte: Byteball data is stored and ordered using directed acyclic graph (DAG) rather than blockchain. This allows all users to secure each other's data by referencing earlier data units created by other users, and also removes scalability limits common for blockchains, such as blocksize issue.
Siacoin: Siacoin is decentralized storage platform. Distributes encrypted files to thousands of private users who get paid for renting out their disk space. Anybody with siacoins can rent storage from hosts on Sia. This is accomplish via "smart" storage contracts stored on the Sia blockchain. The smart contract provides a payment to the host only after the host has kept the file for a given amount of time. If the host loses the file, the host does not get paid.
Maidsafecoin: MaidSafe stands for Massive Array of Internet Disks, Secure Access for Everyone.Instead of working with data centers and servers that are common today and are vulnerable to data theft and monitoring, SAFE’s network uses advanced P2P technology to bring together the spare computing capacity of all SAFE users and create a global network. You can think of SAFE as a crowd-sourced internet. All data and applications reside in this network. It’s an autonomous network that automatically sets prices and distributes data and rents out hard drive disk space with a Blockchain-based storage solutions.When you upload a file to the network, such as a photo, it will be broken into pieces, hashed, and encrypted. The data is then randomly distributed across the network. Redundant copies of the data are created as well so that if someone storing your file turns off their computer, you will still have access to your data. And don’t worry, even with pieces of your data on other people’s computers, they won’t be able to read them. You can earn MadeSafeCoins by participating in storing data pieces from the network on your computer and thus earning a Proof of Resource.
Storj: Storj aims to become a cloud storage platform that can’t be censored or monitored, or have downtime. Your files are encrypted, shredded into little pieces called 'shards', and stored in a decentralized network of computers around the globe. No one but you has a complete copy of your file, not even in an encrypted form.
Market 11 - Cloud computing
Obviously, renting computing power, one of the biggest emerging markets as of recent years, e.g. AWS and Digital Ocean, is also a service, which can be bought and managed via the blockchain.
Golem: Allows easy use of Supercomputer in exchange for tokens. People worldwide can rent out their computers to the network and get paid for that service with Golem tokens.
Elf: Allows easy use of Cloud computing in exchange for tokens.
Market 12 - Stablecoin
Last but not least, there are 2 stablecoins that have established themselves within the market. A stable coin is a coin that wants to be independent of the volatility of the crypto markets. This has worked out pretty well for Maker and DGD, accomplished through a carefully diversified currency fund and backing each token by 1g or real gold respectively. DO NOT CONFUSE DGD AND MAKER with their STABLE COINS DGX and DAI. DGD and MAKER are volatile, because they are the companies of DGX and DAI. DGX and DAI are the stable coins.
DGD: Platform of the Stablecoin DGX. Every DGX coin is backed by 1g of gold and make use proof of asset consensus.
Maker: Platform of the Stablecoin DAI that doesn't vary much in price through widespread and smart diversification of assets.
EDIT: Added a risk factor from 0 to 10. The baseline is 2 for any crypto. Significant scandals, mishaps, shady practices, questionable technology, increase the risk factor. Not having a product yet automatically means a risk factor of 6. Strong adoption and thus strong scrutiny or positive community lower the risk factor. EDIT2: Added a subjective potential factor from 0 to 10, where its overall potential and a small or big market cap is factored in. Bitcoin with lots of potential only gets a 9, because of its massive market cap, because if Bitcoin goes 10x, smaller coins go 100x, PIVX gets a 10 for being as good as Monero while carrying a 10x smaller market cap, which would make PIVX go 100x if Monero goes 10x.
Mining for Profitability - Horizen (formerly ZenCash) Thanks Early GPU Miners
Thank you for inviting Horizen to the GPU mining AMA! ZEN had a great run of GPU mining that lasted well over a year, and brought lots of value to the early Zclassic miners. It is mined using Equihash protocol, and there have been ASIC miners available for the algorithm since about June of 2018. GPU mining is not really profitable for Horizen at this point in time. We’ve got a lot of miners in the Horizen community, and many GPU miners also buy ASIC miners. Happy to talk about algorithm changes, security, and any other aspect of mining in the questions below. There are also links to the Horizen website, blog post, etc. below. So, if I’m not here to ask you to mine, hold, and love ZEN, what can I offer? Notes on some of the lessons I’ve learned about maximizing mining profitability. An update on Horizen - there is life after moving on from GPU mining. As well as answering your questions during the next 7 days. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mining for Profitability - Horizen (formerly ZenCash) Thanks Early GPU Miners
Author: Rolf Versluis - co-founder of Horizen
In GPU mining, just like in many of the activities involved with Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, there is both a cycle and a progression. The Bitcoin price cycle is fairly steady, and by creating a personal handbook of actions to take during the cycle, GPU miners can maximize their profitability. Maximizing profitability isn't the only aspect of GPU mining that is important, of course, but it is helpful to be able to invest in new hardware, and be able to have enough time to spend on building and maintaining the GPU miners. If it was a constant process that also involved losing money, then it wouldn't be as much fun.
For a given mining algorithm, there is definitely a technology progression. We can look back on the technology that was used to mine Bitcoin and see how it first started off as Central Processing Unit (CPU) mining, then it moved to Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) mining, then Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), and then Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). Throughout this evolution we have witnessed a variety of unsavory business practices that unfortunately still happen on occasion, like ASIC Miner manufacturers taking pre-orders 6 months in advance, GPU manufacturers creating commercial cards for large farms that are difficult for retail customers to secure and ASIC Miner manufacturers mining on gear for months before making it available for sale. When a new crypto-currency is created, in many cases a new mining algorithm is created also. This is important, because if an existing algorithm was used, the coin would be open to a 51% attack from day one, and may not even be able to build a valid blockchain. Because there's such a focus on profitable software, developers for GPU mining applications are usually able to write a mining application fairly rapidly, then iterate it to the limit of current GPU technology. If it looks like a promising new cryptocurrency, FPGA stream developers and ASIC Hardware Developers start working on their designs at the same time. The people who create the hashing algorithms run by the miners are usually not very familiar with the design capabilities of Hardware manufacturers. Building application-specific semiconductors is an industry that's almost 60 years old now, and FPGA’s have been around for almost 35 years. This is an industry that has very experienced engineers using advanced design and modeling tools. Promising cryptocurrencies are usually ones that are deploying new technology, or going after a big market, and who have at least a team of talented software developers. In the best case, the project has a full-stack business team involving development, project management, systems administration, marketing, sales, and leadership. This is the type of project that attracts early investment from the market, which will drive the price of the coin up significantly in the first year. For any cryptocurrency that's a worthwhile investment of time, money, and electricity for the hashing, there will be a ASIC miners developed for it. Instead of fighting this technology progression, GPU miners may be better off recognizing it as inevitable, and taking advantage of the cryptocurrency cycle to maximize GPU mining profitability instead.
Cryptocurrency Price Cycle
For quality crypto projects, in addition to the one-way technology progression of CPU -> GPU -> FPGA -> ASIC, there is an upward price progression. More importantly, there is a cryptocurrency price cycle that oscillates around an overall upgrade price progression. Plotted against time, a cycle with an upward progressions looks like a sine wave with an ever increasing average value, which is what we see so far with the Bitcoin price. Cryptocurrency price cycle and progression for miners This means mining promising new cryptocurrencies with GPU miners, holding them as the price rises, and being ready to sell a significant portion in the first year. Just about every cryptocurrency is going to have a sharp price rise at some point, whether through institutional investor interest or by being the target of a pump-and-dump operation. It’s especially likely in the first year, while the supply is low and there is not much trading volume or liquidity on exchanges. Miners need to operate in the world of government money, as well as cryptocurrency. The people who run mining businesses at some point have to start selling their mining proceeds to pay the bills, and to buy new equipment as the existing equipment becomes obsolete. Working to maximize profitability means more than just mining new cryptocurrencies, it also means learning when to sell and how to manage money.
Managing Cash for Miners
The worst thing that can happen to a business is to run out of cash. When that happens, the business usually shuts down and goes into bankruptcy. Sometimes an investor comes in and picks up the pieces, but at the point the former owners become employees. There are two sides to managing cash - one is earning it, the other is spending it, and the cryptocurrency price cycle can tell the GPU miner when it is the best time to do certain things. A market top and bottom is easy to recognize in hindsight, and harder to see when in the middle of it. Even if a miner is able to recognize the tops and bottoms, it is difficult to act when there is so much hype and positivity at the top of the cycle, and so much gloom and doom at the bottom. A decent rule of thumb for the last few cycles appears to be that at the top and bottom of the cycle BTC is 10x as expensive compared to USD as the last cycle. Newer crypto projects tend to have bigger price swings than Bitcoin, and during the rising of the pricing cycle there is the possibility that an altcoin will have a rise to 100x its starting price. Taking profits from selling altcoins during the rise is important, but so is maintaining a reserve. In order to catch a 100x move, it may be worth the risk to put some of the altcoin on an exchange and set a very high limit order. For the larger cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin it is important to set trailing sell stops on the way up, and to not buy back in for at least a month if a sell stop gets triggered. Being able to read price charts, see support and resistance areas for price, and knowing how to set sell orders are an important part of mining profitability.
Actions to Take During the Cycle
As the cycle starts to rise from the bottom, this is a good time to buy mining hardware - it will be inexpensive. Also to mine and buy altcoins, which are usually the first to see a price rise, and will have larger price increases than Bitcoin. On the rise of the cycle, this is a good time to see which altcoins are doing well from a project fundamentals standpoint, and which ones look like they are undergoing accumulation from investors. Halfway through the rise of the cycle is the time to start selling altcoins for the larger project cryptos like Bitcoin. Miners will miss some of the profit at the top of the cycle, but will not run out of cash by doing this. This is also the time to stop buying mining hardware. Don’t worry, you’ll be able to pick up that same hardware used for a fraction of the price at the next bottom. As the price nears the top of the cycle, sell enough Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to meet the following projected costs:
Mining electricity costs for the next 12 months
Planned investment into new miners for the next cycle
Additional funds needed for things like supporting a family or buying a Lambo
Taxes on all the capital gains from the sale of cryptocurrencies
It may be worth selling 70-90% of crypto holdings, maintaining a reserve in case there is second upward move caused by government bankruptcies. But selling a large part of the crypto is helpful to maintaining profitability and having enough cash reserves to make it through the bottom part of the next cycle. As the cycle has peaked and starts to decline, this is a good time to start investing in mining facilities and other infrastructure, brush up on trading skills, count your winnings, and take some vacation. At the bottom of the cycle, it is time to start buying both used and new mining equipment. The bottom can be hard to recognize. If you can continue to mine all the way through bottom part of the cryptocurrency pricing cycle, paying with the funds sold near the top, you will have a profitable and enjoyable cryptocurrency mining business. Any cryptocurrency you are able to hold onto will benefit from the price progression in the next higher cycle phase.
An Update on Horizen - formerly ZenCash
The team at Horizen recognizes the important part that GPU miners played in the early success of Zclassic and ZenCash, and there is always a welcoming attitude to any of ZEN miners, past and present. About 1 year after ZenCash launched, ASIC miners became available for the Equihash algorithm. Looking at a chart of mining difficulty over time shows when it was time for GPU miners to move to mining other cryptocurrencies. Horizen Historical Block Difficulty Graph Looking at the hashrate chart, it is straightforward to see that ASIC miners were deployed starting June 2018. It appears that there was a jump in mining hashrate in October of 2017. This may have been larger GPU farms switching over to mine Horizen, FPGA’s on the network, or early version of Equihash ASIC miners that were kept private. The team understands the importance of the cryptocurrency price cycle as it affects the funds from the Horizen treasury and the investments that can be made. 20% of each block mined is sent to the Horizen non-profit foundation for use to improve the project. Just like miners have to manage money, the team has to decide whether to spend funds when the price is high or convert it to another form in preparation for the bottom part of the cycle. During the rise and upper part of the last price cycle Horizen was working hard to maximize the value of the project through many different ways, including spending on research and development, project management, marketing, business development with exchanges and merchants, and working to create adoption in all the countries of the world. During the lower half of the cycle Horizen has reduced the team to the essentials, and worked to build a base of users, relationships with investors, exchanges, and merchants, and continue to develop the higher priority software projects. Lower priority software development, going to trade shows, and paying for business partnerships like exchanges and applications have all been completely stopped. Miners are still a very important part of the Horizen ecosystem, earning 60% of the block reward. 20% goes to node operators, with 20% to the foundation. In the summer of 2018 the consensus algorithm was modified slightly to make it much more difficult for any group of miners to perform a 51% attack on Horizen. This has so far proven effective. The team is strong, we provide monthly updates on a YouTube live stream on the first Wednesday of each month where all questions asked during the stream are addressed, and our marketing team works to develop awareness of Horizen worldwide. New wallet software was released recently, and it is the foundation application for people to use and manage their ZEN going forward. Horizen is a Proof of Work cryptocurrency, and there is no plan to change that by the current development team. If there is a security or centralization concern, there may be change to the algorithm, but that appears unlikely at this time, as the hidden chain mining penalty looks like it is effective in stopping 51% attacks. During 2019 and 2020 the Horizen team plans to release many new software updates:
Sidechains modification to main software
Sidechain Software Development Kit
Governance and Treasury application running on a sidechain
Node tracking and payments running on a sidechain
Conversion from blockchain to a Proof of Work BlockDAG using Equihash mining algorithm
Rolf Versluis is Co-Founder and Executive Advisor of the privacy oriented cryptocurrency Horizen. He also operates multiple private cryptocurrency mining facilities with hundreds of operational systems, and has a blog and YouTube channel on crypto mining called Block Operations. Rolf applies his engineering background as well as management and leadership experience from running a 60 person IT company in Atlanta and as a US Navy nuclear submarine officer operating out of Hawaii to help grow and improve the businesses in which he is involved. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Thank you again for the Ask Me Anything - please do. I'll be checking the post and answering questions actively from 28 Feb to 6 Mar 2019 - Rolf
I've posted this message on another thread where it was quickly drowned in the usual Roxanne rants of people seemingly playing this game while finding it terrible and comparing it to work. Then reflecting on my own experience, I realized that with the last days of FMA, people are throwing their last strenght to try to clear the 3 dreaded FMA EX+ mission. Having been on the verge of giving up more than once and being increasing frustrated by not being able to reproduce the videos of better players than me, I wanted to share my experience and maybe give you give a last piece of motivation to make it. Videos are absolutly great to give you a headstart, but it didn't help me a lot because 1/you never have exactly the same setup as players 2/even when doing it with F2P units, the gear is usually top notch because those players have been collecting it for so long, and the units are often lvl80+ which is also the mark of veterans. As an addition, time is precious and all those videos last 30 min and I find it very difficult to understand the underlying strategy because unless you watch and analyse everything (which requires a very good knowledge of the game that I don't have) which takes ages, it's easy to miss the "key" moment when the strategy succeeds. What I needed was a few key principles to make it through the map, saving me time while giving me the opportunity and pride (and a weebit of wrath) to tune my own roster and find my own solution. Having tried all those levels for 20 hours total, I wanted to share my findings. CONTEXT & ASSUMPTIONS I've been playing for less than 2 months (6 days remaining on my pact). I am a moderate whale / heavy dolphin (spent 220€ so far) mostly because i'm 40 with kids and a correct salary and I'm ready to arbitrate time vs money. Also I have an obsessive personality and love making short, middle and long-term strategies which makes me, I believe, a good project manager as well as a perfect target for freemium games. So I'm not giving any lessons here, in a way I bought my way to victory although I'm still trying to limit my expenses to avoid killing the fun, and still give me a sense of accomplishment by optimizing the money I pour in the game (I typically try to convert mentally every resource in the game : equipment, gold, shards etc. in equivalent gem to make sure I don't waste IRL money). TAC is certainly putting up a paywall and I can understand part of the rant, however having worked in startup ecosystems for a short while, we all know that most SaaS business models today consist in acquiring users with freebies THEN monetize community, without alienating them. Which is what TAC is experimenting right now, with various success, even if I am actually quite happy with the one year anniversary (I seem to be the only one though). I genuinely cannot understand people who have been playing TAC for thousands of hours by paying nothing or 10 months of pact (which is roughly the cost of any new game on PS4), and then complain about Gumi slightly altering their monetization model. Or rather, I can understand the human mechanism behind that (what we call in french "on ne revient pas sur les avantages acquis") but it feels a bit unfair. Anyway, let's come back to the topic. So...220€ bought me a Laharl 76 (reroll unit), Uzuma 75 (3 steps free gems guaranteed), Roxanne 75 (9 steps using selector + 50 shards), Edward 74 (3 steps paid gems guaranteed) + Eve 80 (7 steps anniversary banner) + Miuna/Kudanstein 70 each (3 steps free gems guaranteed). Obviously I have most free SS staples but only a few of them at 75+ since I farmed HQ from day one : Shayna, Vettel, Magnus, Reagan, Anastasia. Most of them don't even have thei lvl80 MA. I farmed their gear to gold whenever I could, and they only gear I bought are Prinny'sword & Envy's Mark, which I didn't use. I don't have any limited item such as Takiyaki. I'm playing around 3 hours each day, with various attention level depending on task at hand : from barely looking at it (HQ farming) to extreme attention (EX+). Unless specified, all my units are JM3 maxed with enhanced equipment and max skill levels, but I guess this is the case for most of you. I was aiming at getting my free FMA ticket, although I specifically went for Fullmetal EX+ green shards (no death + wind team only). I think Pride & Wrath EX+ is doable for my thunder units but clearing those left me exhausted and I want to catchup with the other events (veda, pirate & co) so I'm skipping it, especially since all my best thunder units are farmable (teona, magnus, fujika, aruba etc.). So I can't give any advanced tips, I just hope my "just-clear" walkthrough will enable recent players like me to get the ticket (got Bradley btw, too bad I disassembled his gear by error :D). Also, I think those stage tremendously increased my knowledge of the game mechanism. For convenience purpose I've also linked to the main tipcs & videos given by the famous veteran players who paved the way for the other players. Obviously difficulty grade is personal and subjective, I'm just an average player although I play TAC as I would play any other console/PC game : for me it's a full fledged SRPG. I've owned almost every PC/Console since the end of the eighties, having completed say 90% of any top 100 games list out there. I recon mobile gaming has progressed a lot since those few years and numerous acquisition of mobile gaming companies by lead studios everywhere show that even if "legacy hardcore gamers" still sneer at mobile gamers, the distinction will soon be obsolete : that's indeed where the money is, under the "game as a service" form. FULLMETAL EX+ Time to clear : 30 to 40 tries (5 hours) just to clear the level. Once I got the hang of it, the no death / wind only milestones took me only a couple of tries, making the success repeatable. Difficulty level : 4 on a scale of 1 (easy) to 5 (Ornstein & Smough) Frustration level : 3 on a scale of 1 (predictable) to 5 (trying to earn a living by trading high frequency bitcoin) Key principles :
Priority 1 : Left HB will one shot any of your character, unless you evade (Hayate & Bradley perfect evade), Revive (Guts skill from tanks), Kill him first with high AGI HB (Quickened Yomi), or block his way (Edward). After several tries, I used edward to create a block at the top of the initial stairs on the left, charge Laharl, then when the block is destroyed, laharl proceeds to one-short the HB with a regular attack enabling him to get jewels. I found that blinking Uzuma on the ledge from the bottom prevents the units on the ramp to be delayed, but deprives you from 35 precious jewels so ultimately I found it better to have to delayed Uzuma with full jewels instead.
Priority 2 & 3 : You only have a few turns to kill Waginau, before he silences your team and then you're basically fucked. Waginau can be killed in 2 or 3 magical shots, ideally using Uzuma or Roy, because Pyrokinesis can also take out green Mandragora which is one of the biggest damage dealer on the map. Null grenade from Roxanne might give you a respite because he doesn't have jewel regen.
Priority 4 : clear-up vermins/remaining mandragoras/archers at the top of the stairs (that's usually where you can get the 4+ dead enemies milestones), while managing your health with potions and preparing for the arrival of 2 red mean HB. Uzumas can tank quite well but after a while they'll need a refresh. After Laharl AGI 141 killed the wind HB, he has basically 2 turns and then I charge-up. The 2 red HB appear and he can AoE bringing them to a couple of a few life points, making them easy to kill with any of your units around. If you got the timing bad, Uzuma can blast them with water spells from the ledge of the upper terrace where the bulk of the fight usually takes place.
Additional tip 1 : Kinetic glove with MA is actually awesome here, giving you an added move while increasing slightly your available jewels during turn 2 and 3. Well worth the 100 gold shards for long maps.
Additional tip 2 : You can basically kite the bottom robot + chronomancer by moving back and forth, effectively neutralising them for a few turns. I found Edward and green HB to be very efficients at tanking the robot.
FLAME & HAWK EX+ Time to clear : 80 to 100 tries (12 hours) just to clear the level. It nearly broke me. Although during my last run I had only 1 death (Reagan) that could have been avoided, It's not worth 10 platinum for me. Difficulty level : 5 on a scale of 1 to 5 Frustration level : 5 on a scale of 1 to 5 (very RNG dependant due to Charm / Paralysis effects => don't hesitate to kill your app and restart to get your used items back) Key principles :
Priority 1 : units 4 and 5 (Merc) NEED >140 AGI to leave Waginau aggroing zone. Play around positionning them but by leaving them on the small ledge, there's actually a configuration that will pull Edward and 2x vermins on the right side of the map, exposing them to Laharl AoE which, if preceeded by any AoE hit, will kill them all. Trade-off is that one vermin will come at you at the top side of the map, trying to charm you. If it happens, you WILL lose too many turns so retreat and restart. It happens roughly 50% of the time. Both Laharls should charge up first thing.
Priority 2 : Shoot the 2 robots ASAP with defense ignoring skills, like Samurai (Vettel) Machinist (Roxanne, Magnus) or Sniper (Reagan). After playing around with 2 roxanne machinists, she's too squishy so I went with only 1 Roxanne machinist + 2 Laharls as leaders/mercs (positioned like that : Laharl - Reagan - Roxanne - Chihaya - Laharl merc). I found that keeping the top left robot alive for a few turns actually enables you to build up jewels until AJ7000 comes around. Just spread your characters to avoid being paralyzed.
Priority 3 : Be ready to one-shot AJ7000 before he does that to you. Some do it with HB (charged up Shayna or Eve) but that requires a very specific jewels build up. I generaly found it easier to do it with Laharl + a couple elixirs if needed. You might need to be aware of CT mechanisms (credits : VicariousEXP), because when you see the black mage about to launch PATK shield, it's better to heal or do nothing to act early during your next action. If you are a bit late and need to sacrify a character, at least spread them out to avoid AJ7000 deadly AoE. Imho this is the hardest phase because timing is so difficult to get. But it's also the most rewarding phase.
Priority 4 : Bradley is a walk in the park, just freeze him with your mexican army of chronomancers. To freeze him you can AT LAST leave Waginau safe zone.
Priority 5 : THEN you freeze Waginau. Then you destroy Bradley & Waginau with anything alive on your side. I think that when they are frozen you can basically kill them with 100% hit rate.
Additional tip 5 : if you go the Roxanne machinist way, booster +2 and all-natural talents still gives 150+ AGI, she can first destroy the robot and possibly charm the archer, AND then use a tezla grenade to stun edward & 2 vermins coming from the right side which also destroys PATK shield, after which charged-up laharl can one-shot them wih Overlord.
Additional tip 6 : You need lots of chronomancers for the last phase of the combat. That's why my subs where HB with chronomancer sub. Reagan is awesome here, capable to kill the robot THEN daze/bind archers (very useful to catch up when you feel behind) THEN freeze Bradley/Waginau.
Additional tip 7 : Chihaya helps a lot. She can dance early, she can freeze & hit late, and she can reasonably tank if needed. Awesome.
PRIDE & WRATH EX+ Time to clear : 2 tries (30 min) just to clear the level. After the previous level, you understanding of the game has increased dramatically. You can pact/pat yourself until end of time and stomp anything that comes your way Difficulty level : 2 on a scale of 1 to 5 (at the level of "regular" EX+ levels) Frustration level : 2 on a scale of 1 to 5 Key principles :
Priority 1 : Try to make your way to Roy/Demon/Rita/Alphonse and charge-up AoE effect asap (Laharl, Setsuna, Noctis, Othima, lost of units will work). Actually the most difficult on the map is to manage to pass through the popping rabbits.
Priority 2 : On the right side I used an Uzuma which can easily kill Bradley, step on the blue circle and join the rest of the group. I think any HB or tanky units will do.
Honestly bring your best units and let the carnage begin, to evacuate frustration from the previous level.
Additional tip 1 : Demon & Alphonse will likely remain last and have a truckload of HP. I managed to solo both of them with Eve as long as you accumulate enough jewels + strong potions. So make sure you include them in your earliest nukes.
Additional tip 2 : interesting videos for dark only team and thunder only team, making use of tanky merchant Aruba. Didn't help me a lot though, as I just plowed through with Laharl - Roxanne - Lofia - Uzuma - Laharl merc.
That's it ! I wish the best luck in that memorable challenge ! Please share your tips for the brave players who will attempt the challenge in the last days of the collab...may the force be with you ! PS : also I want to thank all of you guys, you make half of my pleasure playing this game. Common Gumi, throw what you can at us, there's nothing the Reddit community can't beat !
The target level of difficulty in the Bitcoin system is recalculated every 2016 blocks (approximately 2 times a week). It can increase or decrease, it all depends on the time of creation of new batches of the block and how much it differs from 2016 minutes (20160 * 10). Regardless of the total power of all miners, 1 block is generated on average within 10 minutes. The miner's probability of ... A lot of beginners in cryptocurrency mining and trading don’t know what Bitcoin difficulty is. Bitcoin difficulty is one of the easiest terms in the cryptocurrency world. This is a measure of how difficult the mining is. It affects the prospects of this process for a specific person and the price of Bitcoin in general. The process of mining ... The difficulty in bitcoin works in exactly the same way – it’s used to set a target value, ... So the target is a hexadecimal value, and miners are trying to get a hexadecimal hash value below the target. In fact, you can easily convert between hexadecimal and “normal numbers” (better known as decimal numbers): Hexadecimal ... However it only seems to convert between the 256 bit and 32 bit compact representation of bits. Not the floating point value of difficulty I am looking for. So I believe this is only part of the solution. – Dan Sep 15 '14 at 16:17 @Dan To get the difficulty, divide the maximum target (bits=0x1d00ffff) by the current target. – theymos Sep 15 '14 at 19:40. add a comment 2. i have written ... The Bitcoin difficulty chart provides the current Bitcoin difficulty (BTC diff) target as well as a historical data graph visualizing Bitcoin mining difficulty chart values with BTC difficulty adjustments (both increases and decreases) defaulted to today with timeline options of 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 3 years, and all time
Ethereum to Target $300 Once it Reaches This Massive Support Zone
Bitcoin Technical Analysis & Bitcoin News Today: Massive falling wedge in the Bitcoin chart? I'll use technical analysis on the Bitcoin price to make a Bitcoin price prediction. Proof of key is ... Bitcoin basics: What is the difficulty target and how does it adjust itself? Keifer Kif. Loading... Unsubscribe from Keifer Kif? Cancel Unsubscribe. Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 1 ... http://bit.ly/Paxful-VERIFIED This video will show how to use the marketplace PAXFUL to buy Bitcoins many different ways. You can use gift cards, Paypal, Wes... Mining bitcoin is not as easy as it might seem. In this video, we highlight the biggest reason that most crypto miners end up losing money. --- This episode is sponsored by Americas Cardroom, the ... Explanation of Bitcoin Mining & Difficulty for lay people. Canadian billionaire predicts end of US Dollar as world's reserve currency - Ned Goodman lecture - Duration: 7:23. Cambridge House ...