How do I make a wallet backup? – Blockchain Support Center

Restoring a wallet.dat file

My laptop crashed, but thankfully I have several back-ups of my wallet.dat file on some USB's. It's from Bitcoin Core version .12.1.
I've downloaded version .14.0 on my iMac, but I'm not sure how to import the wallet.dat file off my USB.
Seems like it should be easy. This link says "to restore the backup, simply copy your backed up wallet.dat over an existing one in the bitcoin data location."
But I'm not sure what is meant by the bitcoin data location. Can't find it.
Here's that link: https://freedomnode.com/guides/14/how-to-backup-and-restore-bitcoin-wallet
Thanks in advance for any help.
submitted by 22funnybunny to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

How to backup and restore a Bitcoin mobile wallet

How to backup and restore a Bitcoin mobile wallet submitted by CoinBriefBot to CoinBrief [link] [comments]

Question about bitcoin core

Quick question, my ssd died. I did get out a my wallet.dat file I created after the database got corrupt (0%synced). Is that enough to recover my wallet? 🤞🤞🤞
submitted by Benderinn333 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

How to restore an old BTC.com wallet to Electrum

Hello,
**If someone helps me with this i'll shoot you $20 (in bitcoin).
I have an old btc.com wallet (not much on there) that goes to an old email address that I can't seem to get logged in. I saved the backup seed information which includes:
"Encrypted Primary Seed"
"Backup Seed"
"Encrypted Recovery Secret"
"Password Encrypted Secret"
and the public keys.

I use Electrum but I am unsure how to backup the wallet that originated from BTC.com to to restore on electrum.
I got like $100 on there so if you help me with this I'll send you $20 from it :)
Thanks
submitted by CraigFeigin to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Complete Guide to Exodus Wallet

A multi-currency portfolio that makes the wealth of options its strong point. This Complete Guide to Exodus Wallet will clarify its use.

Exodus, an evocative name to best identify a decentralized wallet complete in every aspect and functionality and equipped with an attractive interface that is never an end in itself. Follow our complete guide to Exodus Wallet step by step and you will learn how to use it right away.
After downloading and installing the desktop version, available for Windows, Mac and Linux operating systems, start the software. On the welcome screen, the first action to be taken will be the activation of the wallet obtained by sending a small amount of crypto.

Complete Guide to Exodus Wallet

Then select Sends Assets to Wallet, choose the Ethereum cryptocurrency, press the Receive button and finally click on the icon with the plus sign to store the alphanumeric address of your wallet to which to send a minimum of 0.025 Ether.

Guide to Exodus Wallet
Let's now proceed by selecting Backup in the left menu to move to the page for creating the wallet access password first and then the passphrase that will uniquely identify it. The first is the classic password protection to prevent other people from accessing the wallet from your PC.

The second will allow you instead to be able to access it from any other installation on other PCs. Write them both in a diary or notebook that must be jealously guarded.

Since this is decentralized software, your wallet is not physically installed on your PC but is located on server hosting (more simply, at a subsequent installation, it will be sufficient to select Restore From Backup and enter the 12-word passphrase to be able to have full access to your wallet).


Finally, you will be "tested" to verify that you have actually written everything on paper.

Complete Guide to Exodus Wallet
For any doubts that you will not be able to solve by means of this complete guide to Exodus Wallet or if you want more information, a well-stocked Help Desk section is available. To access it, simply select Help in the main menu on the left. You are shown the social links, the currently installed version and a very long FAQ section. We guarantee that it will certainly come in handy.
A Wallet totally compatible with the main crypto that offers full support to the erc-20 standard.
Just above Help is the Settings item that allows you to quickly select the crypto you want to view in your Portfolio and in your Wallet - regardless of whether or not there are funds - or to choose the traditional reference currency or change the skin of the interface.

ClaimBits - Earn FREE Bitcoins
Let's start now with the description of the last items on the left menu. As soon as you start Exodus you will immediately enter the Portfolio. A graphical representation will display all the cryptocurrencies in your possession while scrolling down the page you will see listed in greater detail and information all the cryptocurrencies previously selected in Settings.

Complete Guide to Exodus Wallet
With the entry Wallet we finally get to the heart of Exodus. By selecting it, another vertical bar will appear with the cryptocurrencies on which funds are deposited listed at the beginning and then all the others selected in Settings. At the bottom of the bar, you can quickly add more by pressing the Add More button, practically a link to the Settings section we have previously talked about.

Guide to Exodus Wallet
At the top right you will have noticed 3 dots positioned vertically. By clicking on them you will open a drop-down menu that will allow you, among other things, to download the private key of the wallet to your PC (we will explain its use later) and all the transactions made with the related crypto. The same ones you will notice as you scroll down the page.



The Send button is used to transfer cryptocurrencies to another wallet or exchange. After selecting it, you will need to enter the destination address and the quantity to be sent. The cost of the transaction will also be calculated in real time.

Complete Guide to Exodus Wallet

To deposit funds of the desired crypto on Exodus, simply press the Receive button, copy the wallet address by selecting the icon with the + sign and paste it into the wallet from which you want to withdraw the funds. The other icons allow you to print the address, send it via email or view its details on blockstream.info.

Guide to Exodus Wallet
The icon with the opposite arrows will send you directly to the Exodus internal exchange.
Let's take an exchange from Bitcoin to Ethereum for example. On this screen, you are offered 3 shortcut keys: All (move everything), Half (half of the availability), Min (minimum transferable amount). Alternatively, you can manually enter the amount of Bitcoins you intend to exchange with Ethereum. You will be shown on the left the amount you are about to transfer while on the right the total you will receive in Ethereum net of commissions.

All cryptocurrency amounts will always show their equivalent in the traditional currency selected at the beginning of the guide. Once ready, press Exchange and the operation will be performed in real time. Also in this screen you will have the opportunity to see the history of all transactions by selecting Order History at the bottom right.


All transfers made on the exchange always have a variable percentage commission which differs in relation to the sending cryptocurrency.
It is not over here, however. Our Complete Guide to Exodus Wallet will also reveal some hidden options.

Exodus offers an additional menu, which initially remains hidden, and appears by pressing CTRL + SHIFT + D. What interests us is the Developer item which allows you to perform many useful actions: choose from several variants on how to recover your wallet as well as enable notifications, start the Debug Mode and change the price source.


Here too, following the path Developer → Assets → ”cryptocurrency name” → view private keys, you can see the private key of the selected crypto and immediately save it in a file on a secure medium.

Guide to Exodus Wallet

Thanks to this alphanumeric code you can also access your wallet from secure sites such as MyEtherwallet.com.


Since Exodus is a wallet compatible with the Ethereum erc-20 standard, you can use it to transfer the tokens based on the Ethereum blockchain obtained through Airdrops, Bounties and other methods. In our Guide to Airdrops under the heading "Knowing how Etherscan.io and MyEtherwallet.com work" the whole procedure to be followed is explained in detail.


Procedure necessary for all those cryptocurrencies that are not listed in the Assets under the Settings item we wrote about at the beginning of this guide.
And with that, that's all.


If you liked this guide and would like to contribute with a donation:

Bitcoin: 1Ld9b165ZYHZcY9eUQmL9UjwzcphRE5S8Z
Ethereum: 0x8D7E456A11f4D9bB9e6683A5ac52e7DB79DBbEE7
Litecoin: LamSRc1jmwgx5xwDgzZNoXYd6ENczUZViK
Stellar: GBLDIRIQWRZCN5IXPIKYFQOE46OG2SI7AFVWFSLAHK52MVYDGVJ6IXGI
Ripple: rUb8v4wbGWYrtXzUpj7TxCFfUWgfvym9xf

DOWNLOAD: https://www.exodus.io/download/

OFFICIAL SITE: https://www.exodus.io/

By: cryptoall.it Telegram Channel: t.me/giulo75 Netbox Browser: https://netbox.global/PZn5A
submitted by Giulo75 to u/Giulo75 [link] [comments]

How to use Bitcoin Core only?

I'm wondering how one would restore a wallet that was made from a BIP39 seed to a Bitcoin Core wallet? Bitcoin Core does not use BIP39. So I presume you'd have to provide it the master private key.. but what is that exactly? Because on Ian Coleman's BIP39 utility website.... it shows BIP32 Root Key, Account Extended Private Key, and BIP32 Extended Private key... they are all different... which one would work to use in Bitcoin Core?
How would one backup their Bitcoin Core wallet private key? Is there an applicable mnemonic? Or is it just the private key?
Does Core work with QR codes? (Reading and Generating?)
submitted by SatoshiThreepwoodMP to BitcoinBeginners [link] [comments]

FAQ for Beginners

What is Bitcoin?

Bitcoin is scarce, decentralized, and global digital money that cannot be censored.

Quick Advice

  • Do not respond to strangers messaging you with investment advice or offers and read how to avoid being scammed from the posts below.
  • Do not invest in Bitcoin until you do basic research, paid off all high interest debt, and have a emergency savings account of a stable fiat currency.
  • If investing do not expect to get rich quickly. You should expect to wait at least 1-2 years before taking profits. Bitcoin is currently very volatile. In the interim spend and replace Bitcoin because its a useful currency.
  • Beginners should avoid all mining and day trading until at least very familiar with Bitcoin. Mining is very professional(You cannot efficiently mine with your computer and need to buy special ASIC machines) and most people lose money day trading.
  • Never store your Bitcoins on an exchange or web wallet. Buy your bitcoins and withdraw it to your personal wallet where you actually own them instead of IOUs. Services like Robinhood and Revoult should be avoided because you cannot withdraw or use Bitcoin.
  • Make sure you make a backup of your wallet(software holding keys to your BTC) and preferably keep it offline and physical and private. Typically 12 to 24 words you write down on paper or metal. This onetime backup will restore all your keys, addresses , and Bitcoins on a new wallet if you lose your old wallet.
  • Beginners should avoid altcoins, tokens, and ICOs at least initially until they learn about Bitcoin. Most of these are scams and you should be familiar with the basics first. Bitcoin is referred to as BTC or XBT.

Exchanges Requiring ID Verification

Bitcoin = BTC or XBT on exchanges
Exchange Buy fee* Withdraw BTC Notes
Cash App Sliding ~2.2% to 1% 0 BTC Instant Withdraw, USA only
Coinbase Debit3.99% ACH1.49% 1-4USD ~7Day hold BTC withdraw
CoinbasePro 0.5% 1-4USD ~7Day hold free ACH Deposit or €0.15 EUR SEPA fee
Gemini 1.49% to 0.25%ATrader 0 BTC 10 free BTC withdraws w/ActiveTrader
Kraken 0.16% 0.0005 BTC Deposit Fiat=USwire+5USD or SEPA free
Bitstamp 0.50% 0.0005 BTC Deposit Fiat=0 SEPA or 5% card fee
Note: Exchanges all have unique market prices and spreads so fees alone will not tell you the best rates. Best way is to directly compare the rates between exchanges. Buy fees above are for normal trading volumes. Verification and hold times can vary based upon lack of history, verification level or credit.
More exchanges per location
For a secure Decentralized Exchange (DEX) use https://bisq.network

Recommended Wallets

Best wallets for securing small amounts of BTC
electrum For Desktop and Android
Pros= Great Desktop and Android wallet with advanced functionality like coin control
Cons= UX is not as polished as some other wallets, make sure you only upgrade from official sources like play store or https://electrum.org as malicious servers or adverts can tell you to upgrade malware from other sites
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E4EhZg5QslI
Phoenix LN wallets for Android
Pros- Lightning network integration(as well as onchain) allowing you to spend with LN merchants for instant confirmations and much lower fees. Easiest lightning wallet to use
Cons- Lightning is still somewhat experimental and less merchants accept it.
https://phoenix.acinq.co/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cx5PK1H5OR0
Breez LN wallet for Android and IOS
https://breez.technology
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t_4b-y4T8bY
Pros- Lightning network integration(as well as onchain) allowing you to spend with LN merchants for instant confirmations and much lower fees
Cons- Lightning is still somewhat experimental and less merchants accept it.
Other Lightning wallets - http://lightningnetworkstores.com/wallets
Blockstream Green Wallet IOS and android wallet
Pros- Great UX, easy hardware wallet and full node integration, RBF, HW wallet support and advanced 2fa options Cons- Until single signature is released 2 of 2 multisig means that one must depend upon blockstream’s server for tx signing. Other light wallets are dependent upon other servers as well but light wallets like electrum allow you to swap servers.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uO3Zi9D5b0Y
https://blockstream.com/green/
Securing Larger amounts of Bitcoin
ledger nano S wallet = ~68 USD https://shop.ledger.com/products/ledger-nano-s
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YI1OntWB7wc
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AGe2GgfkO64
trezor one wallet = ~54 USD https://shop.trezor.io
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pT1j_kbZBEo
Trezor Model T = ~164 USD https://shop.trezor.io
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i3BIo5Ac_n4
Cold Card Hardware wallet = 119.97 USD https://store.coinkite.com/store/coldcard
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kocEpndQcsg
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f8dBNrlwJ0k
Digital Bitbox 02 = 109 USD https://shiftcrypto.ch/bitbox02/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tdP_7LgZw7s
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z7nRq2OEhiw
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6D4FgJo3j64
Best Advanced Bitcoin Wallet= Bitcoin Core
Pros= Great privacy and security
Cons= UX is for more experienced users, takes ~week to sync and requires ~5GB minimum disk space if prunned
https://bitcoincore.org/en/download/
Best High Privacy Bitcoin Wallet = Wasabi
Pros= Best Privacy with Chaumian CoinJoin built in
Cons= mixing coins costs more fees and for more advanced users
https://www.wasabiwallet.io/#download
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ECQHAzSckK0
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zPKpC9cRcZo&list=PLmoQ11MXEmahCG1nkbKK6DiAwVx9giJCi
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y8wQK-Ndl3Q&list=PLPj3KCksGbSaEmjU0sywoTYDVYYSu8LsS

Further Resources

https://www.lopp.net/bitcoin-information.html
https://www.lopp.net/lightning-information.html
https://10hoursofbitcoin.com/
http://bitcoinrabbithole.org/
https://bitcoin-resources.com
https://www.bitcoin101.club
https://21lessons.com
submitted by bitusher to BitcoinBeginners [link] [comments]

Ledger Nano S questions

So, how secure are these wallets in comparison to something like mycelium for restoring a backup, and when I restore to a backup does the amount of Bitcoin spendable become viewable in the backup? I've never seen this aspect of Bitcoin in action, never had to use a backup.
Second, these apps and chrome extensions on the ledger websites are these actually secure? What's to stop a MITM attack?
Third, what's to stop a disgruntled employee from emptying hardware wallets?
Thanks in advance for any input.
submitted by CorrectPoetry0 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

How To Withdraw LBC Coin On Lbry.Tv & Exchange To Native Currency

How To Withdraw LBC Coin On Lbry.Tv & Exchange To Native Currency

We have already posted about the introduction of the LBRY blockchain and the concept of this decentralized content freedom platform. We have also discussed early joining earning opportunities for you and you can grab as an early user of this platform.
If you don’t yet familiar with this evolving project in the blockchain world then it’s suggestive from us that read our previously posted articles on those topics which are the followup of this post to learn, In this quick instructing post. About How to withdraw or send, transfer your lbry coins if you have earned or receive through their reward program how you can convert them to your native currency and enjoy to spend them easily.
Join LBRY.tv and Earn LBC Coins
Nav Posted Content

How to Manage Your LBRY.tv Wallet?

📷
As you know that lbry.tv has provided you a blockchain synced wallet where you receive your earnings and you send as well as transfer your funds in terms of LBC coins using LBRY blockchain. You can backup your wallet and also can restore your wallet independently which help you to secure your funds you want to again access your wallet funds you can access the platform and log in there through your email if your wallet is already synced with lbry server then you can see and access your funds directly if syncing is off then you need to restore wallet shortly.

Backup Wallet

You can backup your wallet by just accessing your lbry.tv platform on either desktop application or through an android or IOS platform to turn to sync on or off based on your choices. The requirement of backup up your wallet on the desktop by just going to help section and scroll down then click on create backup option and then you will have saved your zip file of backup you can use it for your fund’s security and other restoration processes.
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If you want to use their same lbry account different platforms then you can sync option for your own convenience.

LBRY Wallets Other Than LBRY App

So it is just easy that you can store your earnings so far until you need to convert them into the local currency you can store and safe them into lbry simply app and access them simply from desktop to Android and other supportive platforms also perhaps if you want to store more separately or want an alternative to lbry apps simple wallet then the options are available you can use the following wallets other then lbry apps.
If you want further detailed information regarding these wallets that how to use them and how you can transact in them you can ask us or suggest us to post guide blog on a thing so that we can consider it on your request.

How to Withdraw Your LBC LBRY Credits Coins From lbry.tv?

The coins you earned on lbry.tv which are actually LBC lbry credits which is a coin and native currency value of lbry platform and blockchain to transfer value and for other use cases. The lbry.tv platform offer you complete freedom of choice and doesn’t hold your funds in their wallet or servers the coins credits you can transfer directly and instantly to the wallet and you can transfer it immediately to any address of supportive LBC exchange or any other LBC blockchain wallet address.
So, therefore, there is no option of withdrawing because there is no minimum or selective day of withdrawing requirement compare to other centralized platforms. So furthermore now we need to consider how we can spend these earned coins because we cannot directly pay them to anyone and can exchange it with services and goods of value that’s why we need to exchange LBC to USD or your own region native fiat currency.

How to Exchange/Convert LBC to USD or Fiat Currency?

The standard process of exchanging any currency to your native currency in the cryptocurrency market is to exchange any crypto to USD through supportive legitimate reputable well-known volume holding Cryptocurrencies either they are centralized or decentralize DEXs.

Current LBC Reputable Markets

  • Bittrex
  • CoinEx
  • VCC Exchange
  • Bisq.Network (DEX)
We recommend You consider Bittrex in first Priority and if you are in a region where Bittrex unsupported their services or ban by country jurisdiction then you can consider CoinEx Exchange to exchange into USDT and Then You can Convert them into a local currency where via crypto to local fiat channels. In this article, we are also looking forward to the way to exchange LBC to USD or any other crypto through CoinEX exchange so let’s read below continue.
Current Value Of LBC Against USD
LBRY Credits (LBC) 0.023857 USD (-6.49%)📷RANK
390MARKET CAP
$10.40 M USD VOLUME
$704.74 K USDPowered by CoinMarketCap
You have two pairs of support on CoinEx exchange with LBC/BTC and LBC/USDT you can further convert it into Ethereum or any other crypto which you feel comfortable getting into fiat easily where local exchangers support is available.

SignUp AT CoinEx

Follow The Following Steps To Exchange Your LBC to USD or BTC at CoinEx
  • After Successfully Logging in to your CoinEx Account.
  • Goto Upper right NAV bar to Assets Option Click and Open it.
  • Find the LBC Under in the Spot Account Search Box LBC Asset wallet Will Appear Shortly.
  • Click on the Deposit Option and Copy the LBC Receiving Address.
  • Then Goto to Your LBRY.tv Account LBC Balance click on it and Click Send Option On the Page.
  • Past the Address thoroughly and enter the desired balance then click send.
  • After 20 Network Confirmations, you will receive your coins in the CoinEx Account.
  • You can Exchange it to USDT or BTC By just Clicking on Markets Option from Nav Bar.
  • You will be redirected to trading markets available instruments on the exchange.
  • You can Select now BTC Pairs or USD Markets Depending on Your Choices.
  • You can either search LBC or find it manually by scrolling your self.
  • Let’s say you want to exchange LBC/USDT By selecting the USD Markets.
  • The LBC/USDT trading panel will appear to select the amount you want to exchange or sell.
  • Enter Amount of balance you want to exchange and Hit Sell Option Currently Min 50 LBC/USD is Allowed.
Now you can withdraw Your USDT or Convert it accordingly to any other crypto to get converting convenience. You can Convert your BTC, ETH, and Other Top coins to PERFECT MONEY SKRILL NETELLER and other fiat channels in Asia and Other regions or get Fiat Withdraw To Your local wallets through following local trusted exchangers.
  • localBitcoins.com
  • Remitano.com
  • Bestchange.com
Many other sites are available but above three are recommended and also done used by personal experiences are much positive regarding (LOCAL BITCOINS, BESTCHANGE) So you can free to use these mediums fees are higher than usual and minimum criteria are also very much tightened because crypto to fiat and fiat to crypto is difficult so far due to Govt. Regulations and centralize control other than that the real-world problem-solving idea come and solve this fees consuming and time hurdle problem solve by some great developers and GOVT could flexible the control on MONEY which so far seems like Very difficult what you think to tell us BELOW.
If you have Skrill or Neteller Verified Account or Want to Create Your account then you can convert BTC, BCH, and Ethereum Directly Through BitPay support inside Skrill and cash out to your native wallet.
If you have any questions regarding LBRY.tv LBC coin or regarding any the blockchain of lbry or having any issue regarding the exchanging platform channel transfer issue or want the easy way of exchanging LBC to your native fiat currency easily then you can comment below we can assist you as much we can We highly appreciate your time to spend on curexmy.com hope this will valuable for you.
submitted by curexmycom to u/curexmycom [link] [comments]

How Ransomware Encryption Happens & 4 Methods for Recovery

We know how overwhelming it can feel to be the victim of a ransomware attack and how your business cannot operate due encrypted or locked files. This page delivers insight on why your files were encrypted or locked, and the options you have to decrypt ransomware. As a ransomware recovery service provider, we have helped thousands of clients successfully recover their data and decrypt their data.
Evaluating all options will include analyzing the encrypted files, and the least desirable option to pay the ransom demand if necessary. Our process helps provide critical insight into decrypting ransomware and the available options that clients have.
By the end of this piece, it is our goal to show you what is involved to successfully recover your files. This guide outlines what steps and research are necessary to decrypt or unlock your files from a ransomware attack.

You’re the victim of a ransomware attack

You arrive to work and start noticing suspicious alerts coming from your servers, and none of the databases are functional. Your co-workers are frantic and cannot access any of their data. You investigate further and find all of the files on your network are renamed and discover ransom notes, and a screen asking you to email someone if you want your data back. You finally realize that you are a victim of a ransomware attack, and all of your files are locked or encrypted.

3 Common Ways Your Files Were Encrypted or Locked

Ransomware succeeds when businesses have poor security hygiene. Organizations that lack policies & procedures around data security will have a higher risk of ransomware attacks. Here are some of the most common ways to fall victim to a ransomware attack:

Open Remote Desktop Protocol Ports (RDP)

Businesses that have improperly configured network security may leave their Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) ports open. Unknowingly, this is the equivalent of leaving the front door unlocked when you leave your home: it provides an opportunity for cyber attacks to come through with little deterrence.
Once a hacker is connected to your network, they can install ransomware and additional back doors to access your network at a later date. A large percentage of ransomware attacks still use this method of attack because so many organizations are not even aware of this security vulnerability.

Phishing Attacks

Ransomware can infiltrate your network by a malicious email campaign known as a phishing attack. Ransomware operators use massive networks of internet-connected devices (botnets) to send phishing emails to unsuspecting victims. These emails intend to trick the receiver into clicking on a malicious attachment or link, which can secretly install the ransomware virus or other malware.
Phishing emails are becoming increasingly difficult to detect as cybercriminals find clever ways to make a malicious email look legitimate. This underscores the importance of security awareness training for everyone in the organization, not just the I.T. department.

Compromised Passwords

The ransomware operators may have used previously compromised passwords from employees at your organization to gain unauthorized access to the networks. This derives from the poor security practices of reusing the same passwords for multiple accounts and authentication processes.
If your employees have been using old & weak passwords to access your business data, a cyber criminal can use a previously compromised password to initiate the attack. Remember to always to follow good password hygiene.
The variety of attack vectors highlights the importance of a digital forensics investigation that can help victims understand how the ransomware came onto your computer and what steps you can take to remediate the vulnerability.

4 Options for Ransomware Recovery

In this section, we cover the options to restore files encrypted or locked by ransomware.

1. Recover files with a backup

If your files become encrypted in a ransomware attack, check to see if you have backups to restore and recover (in order).

2. Recreate the data

Even though your files are encrypted by ransomware, you might be able to recreate the data from a variety of sources as outlined below:

3. Breaking the ransomware encryption

The harsh truth is that the majority of ransomware encryption is unbreakable. This impossibility is a tough concept for many of us to accept, given the technological advances of our society.
Does this mean you should skip looking into whether the ransomware encryption can be broken? This option should always be explored if presented by a ransomware recovery firm, although the final choice is yours to make. We will lay out a real life example at Proven Data below to outline why this was a great decision for a company that was infected with ransomware.
While it tends to be rare, there are poorly constructed ransomware encryptions that have been broken by security researchers. If you can avoid paying a ransom, you should at all costs.
There can be flaws in the malware or weaknesses in the encryption. Businesses can look at these options, especially if time is on your side. There are also free ransomware decryption resources that provide tools for previously decrypted ransomware variants. A client of ours had hired a ransomware recovery company to recover their files until we discovered at the very last moment through our analysis that the encryption was breakable. With less than 20 minutes to spare, we saved the client out of paying a $450,000 ransom.

Why can’t most ransomware encryption be broken?

Ransomware is a cryptovirus, which means it uses cryptography in combination with malware to lock your files. Modern cryptography uses sophisticated mathematical equations (algorithms) and secret keys to encrypt and decrypt data. If strong encryption is used, it can take thousands, if not millions of years to break the encryption given the strength of today’s computers.
Encryption is a security tool created with the intent of data protection. It is a defensive tool to provide security, privacy, and authentication. Sadly, ransomware attackers are using it as a weapon against innocent victims.

How do I know if the encryption can be broken?

You can start off with this free ransomware identification resource to determine the feasibility of decryption. You will need to upload the ransom note and a sample file into the ID-Ransomware website, and it will tell you if there is a free decrypter or if it is an unknown ransomware variant. Please note that the tool is not always 100% accurate. If the variant is still under analysis, you will need a malware or encryption analyst to determine whether or not there is a possibility for decryption.
Encryption is designed to be unbreakable, which is why security researchers can’t simply make a tool for ransomware decryption. These unbreakable encryptions protect our bank accounts, trade secrets, government data, and mobile communications, among other things. It would be a significant security concern if there were a master decryption tool that could break encryption algorithms.

4. Paying the ransom to decrypt ransomware files

If the encryption is too strong, the only way to obtain the decryption key for your files is to pay the ransom. Many ransomware victims don’t have time on their side because they are facing significant business disruption. Each minute that passes could be a lost client, or worse for a medical organization.
Here is a list of the most prevalent ransomware variants that are known to be “cryptographically secure,” which means that Proven Data or the security community has confirmed the encryption is unbreakable:

I don’t want to pay the hackers ransom.

Businesses and individuals have the option of choosing not to pay the ransom in a ransomware attack to regain access to their files. For personal, political, or moral reasons, there has been resentment of the ransomware economy, and victims do not have to engage in extortion. If paying the ransom is the only option, you should know what to expect before considering moving forward.

How a ransomware recovery specialist can help

If you do decide to use a ransomware recovery company and if there is one thing you get out of this article, it is this: You should always question how a ransomware recovery company is recovering your data. If you are unsure, asking the right questions will ensure a transparent experience:
A ransomware recovery specialist can analyze your current situation and determine what options are available to you at the time of the inquiry. A competent and experienced ransomware recovery company should be able to provide the following:
Understanding how your files were affected by ransomware in the first place will provide you with the insight needed to prevent another attack. Whether you choose Proven Data or another company to decrypt your ransomware files, it’s important to know what unknowns there may be out there.
Our threat intelligence that we’ve gathered from the thousands of previous cases enable you to make informed decisions in helping restore your data after a ransomware attack. If you require a company with such experience, we’re standing by to assist 24/7.
submitted by Proven_Data to u/Proven_Data [link] [comments]

Update TKEYSPACE 1.3.0 on Android

Update TKEYSPACE 1.3.0 on Android

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Version 1.3.0 is a powerful update to TkeySpace that our team has been carefully preparing. since version 1.2.0, we have been laying the foundation for implementing new features that are already available in the current version.
Who cares about the security and privacy of their assets is an update for you.
TkeySpace — was designed to give You full control over your digital assets while maintaining an exceptional level of security, which is why there is no personal data in the wallet: phone number, the email address that could be compromised by hackers — no identity checks and other hassles, just securely save the backup phrase consisting of 12 words.

Briefly about the TkeySpace 1.3.0 update :

  • Code optimization and switching to AndroidX;
  • New section-Privacy;
  • Built-in TOR;
  • Selecting the privacy mode;
  • Selecting the recovery method for each currency;
  • Choosing the address format for Litecoin;
  • Enhanced validation of transactions and blocks in the network;
  • Disk space optimization;
  • Accelerated syncing;
  • Checking “double spending”;
  • The bloom filter to check for nodes;
  • Updating the Binance and Ethereum libraries;
  • A function to hide the balance;
  • Advanced currency charts;
  • Access to charts without authentication;
  • News section;
  • Browser for Tkeycoin;
  • Independent Commission entry for Bitcoin;
  • New digital currencies;
  • Digital currency exchange tab.

Code optimization and switching to AndroidX

A lot of work has been done on optimizing the code to speed up the application, improving the logic, synchronization speed, calculating the hash of cryptocurrencies, and successfully switching to AndroidX.

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New section: Privacy

  • Enable Tor;
  • Blockchain transaction (the selection of the privacy mode);
  • Blockchain recovery (choosing a recovery method);
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TOR

Starting with the current update, the TkeySpace wallet can communicate via the TOR network, includes new privacy algorithms, and supports 59 different currencies.

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Tor is a powerful privacy feature for those who own large assets or live in places where the Internet is heavily censored.
Tor technology provides protection against traffic analysis mechanisms that compromise not only Internet privacy, but also the confidentiality of trade secrets, business contacts, and communications in General.
When you enable TOR settings, all outgoing traffic from the wallet will be encrypted and routed through an anonymous network of servers, periodically forming a chain through the Tor network, which uses multi-level encryption, effectively hiding any information about the sender: location, IP address, and other data.
This means that if your provider blocks the connection, you can rest easy — after all, by running this function, you will get an encrypted connection to the network without restrictions.

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In TOR mode, the wallet may work noticeably slower and in some cases, there may be problems with the network, due to encryption, some blockchain browsers may temporarily not work. However, TOR encryption is very important when Internet providers completely block traffic and switching to this mode, you get complete freedom and no blocks for transactions.

Confidentiality of transactions (the Blockchain transaction)

The wallet can change the model of a standard transaction, mixing inputs and outputs, making it difficult to identify certain cryptocurrencies. In the current update, you can select one of several modes for the transaction privacy level: deterministic lexicographic sorting or shuffle mode.

Mode: Lexicographic indexing

Implemented deterministic lexicographic sorting using hashes of previous transactions and output indexes for sorting transaction input data, as well as values and scriptPubKeys for sorting transaction output data;
We understand that information must remain confidential not only in the interests of consumers but also in higher orders, financial systems must be kept secret to prevent fraud. One way to address these privacy shortcomings is to randomize the order of inputs and outputs.
Lexicographic ordering is a comparison algorithm used to sort two sets based on their Cartesian order within their common superset. Lexicographic order is also often referred to as alphabetical order or dictionary order. The hashes of previous transactions (in reverse byte order) are sorted in ascending order, lexicographically.
In the case of two matching transaction hashes, the corresponding previous output indexes will be compared by their integer value in ascending order. If the previous output indexes match, the input data is considered equal.

Shuffle Mode: mixing (random indexing)

To learn more about how “shuffle mode” works, we will first analyze the mechanisms using the example of a classic transaction. Current balance Of your wallet: 100 TKEY, coins are stored at different addresses:
x1. Address-contains 10 TKEY. x2. Address-contains 20 TKEY. x3. Address-contains 30 TKEY. x4. Address-contains 15 TKEY. x5. Address-contains 25 TKEY.
Addresses in the blockchain are identifiers that you use to send cryptocurrency to another person or to receive digital currency.
In a classic transaction, if you need to send, for example, 19 TKEY — 100 TKEY will be sent to the network for “melting” coins, 19 TKEY will be sent to the Recipient, and ~80.9 TKEY will return to the newly generated address for “change” in your wallet.

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In the blockchain explorer, you will see the transaction amount in the amount of 100 TKEY, where 80.99999679 TKEY is your change, 19 TKEY is the amount you sent and 0.00000321 is the transaction fee. Thus, in the blockchain search engine, most of your balance is shown in the transaction.

How does the shuffle mode work?

Let’s look at a similar example: you have 100 TKEY on your balance, and you need to send 19 TKEY.
x1. Address-contains 10 TKEY. x2. Address-contains 20 TKEY. x3. Address-contains 30 TKEY. x4. Address-contains 15 TKEY. x5. Address-contains 25 TKEY.
You send 19 TKEY, the system analyzes all your addresses and balances on them and selects the most suitable ones for the transaction. To send 19 TKEY, the miners will be given coins with x2. Addresses, for a total of 20 TKEY. Of these, 19 TKEY will be sent to the recipient, and 0.99999679 TKEY will be returned to Your new address as change minus the transaction fee.

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In the blockchain explorer, you will see the transaction amount in the amount of 20 TKEY, where 0.99999679 TKEY is Your change, 19 TKEY is the amount you sent and 0.00000321 is the transaction fee.
The shuffle mode has a cumulative effect. with each new transaction, delivery Addresses will be created and the selection of debit addresses/s that are most suitable for the transaction will change. Thus, if you store 1,000,000 TKEY in your wallet and want to send 1 TKEY to the recipient, the transaction amount will not display most of your balance but will select 1 or more addresses for the transaction.

Selecting the recovery method for each digital currency (Blockchain restore)

Now you can choose the recovery method for each currency: API + Blockchain or blockchain.
Note: This is not a syncing process, but rather the choice of a recovery method for your wallet. Syncing takes place with the blockchain — regardless of the method you choose.
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What are the differences between recovery methods?

API + Blockchain

In order not to load the entire history of the blockchain, i.e. block and transaction headers, the API helps you quickly get point information about previous transactions. For example, If your transactions are located in block 67325 and block 71775, the API will indicate to the node the necessary points for restoring Your balance, which will speed up the “recovery” process.
As soon as the information is received, communication with the peers takes place and synchronization begins from the control point, then from this moment, all subsequent block loading is carried out through the blockchain. This method allows you to quickly restore Your existing wallet.
‘’+’’ Speed.
‘’-’’ The API server may fail.

Blockchain

This method loads all block headers (block headers + Merkle) starting from the BIP44 checkpoint and manually validates transactions.
‘’+’’ It always works and is decentralized. ‘’-’’ Loading the entire blockchain may take a long time.

Why do I need to switch the recovery method?

If when creating a wallet or restoring it, a notification (!) lights up in red near the selected cryptocurrency, then most likely the API has failed, so go to SettingsSecurity CenterPrivacyBlockchain Restore — switch to Blockchain. Syncing will be successful.

Selecting the address format

You can choose the address format not only for Bitcoin but also for Litecoin. Legacy, SegWit, Native SegWit. Go to SettingsManage WalletsAddress Format.

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Working at the code level

Enhanced validation of transactions and blocks in the network

Due to the increased complexity in the Tkeycoin network, we have implemented enhanced validation of the tkeycoin consensus algorithm, and this algorithm is also available for other cryptocurrencies.

What is the advantage of the enhanced validation algorithm for the user

First, the name itself speaks for itself — it increases the security of the network, and second, by implementing the function — we have accelerated the work of the TkeySpace blockchain node, the application consumes even fewer resources than before.
High complexity is converted to 3 bytes, which ensures fast code processing and the least resource consumption on your device.

Synchronization

The synchronization process has been upgraded. Node addresses are added to the local storage, and instant synchronization with nodes occurs when you log in again.

Checking for double-spending

TkeySpace eliminates “double-spending” in blockchains, which is very valuable in the Bitcoin and Litecoin networks.
For example, using another application, you may be sent a fake transaction, and the funds will eventually disappear from the network and your wallet because this feature is almost absent in most applications.
Using TkeySpace — you are 100% sure that your funds are safe and protected from fraudulent transactions in the form of “fake” transactions.

The bloom filter to check for nodes

All nodes are checked through the bloom filter. This allows you to exclude fraudulent nodes that try to connect to the network as real nodes of a particular blockchain.
In practice, this verification is not available in applications, Tkeycoin — decided to follow a new trend and change the stereotypes, so new features such as node verification using the bloom filter and double-spending verification are a kind of innovation in applications that work with cryptocurrencies.

Updating the Binance and Ethereum libraries

Updated Binance and Ethereum libraries for interaction with the TOR network.

Interface

Function — to hide the balance

This function allows you to hide the entire balance from the main screen.

Advanced currency charts and charts without authentication

Detailed market statistics are available, including volumes, both for 1 day and several years. Select the period of interest: 1 day, 7 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years.
In version 1.3.0, you can access charts without authentication. You can monitor the cryptocurrency exchange rate without even logging in to the app. If you have a pin code for logging in, when you open the app, swipe to the left and you will see a list of currencies.

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News

In the market data section — in the tkeyspace added a section with current news of the cryptocurrency market.

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Blockchain Explorer for Tkeycoin

Transaction verification for Tkeycoin is now available directly in the app.

Independent Commission entry for Bitcoin

Taking into account the large volume of the Bitcoin network, we have implemented independent Commission entry — you can specify any Commission amount.
For other currencies, smart Commission calculation is enabled based on data from the network. The network independently regulates the most profitable Commission for the sender.

New digital currencies

The TkeySpace wallet supports +59 cryptocurrencies and tokens.

Cryptocurrencies

Tkeycoin (TKEY), Bitcoin (BTC), Litecoin (LTC), Ethereum (ETH), Bitcoin Cash (BCH), DASH, Binance (BNB), EOS.

Stablecoins

TrueUSD (TUSD), Tether USD (USDT), USD Coin (USDC), Gemini Dollar (GUSD), STASIS EURO (EURS), Digix Gold Token (DGX), Paxos Standard (PAX), PAX Gold (PAXG), Binance USD (BUSD), EOSDT, Prospectors Gold (PGL).

ERC-20, BEP2, and EOS tokens

Newdex (NDX), DigixDAO ERC-20 (DGD), Chainlink ERC-20 (LINK), Decentraland ERC-20 (MANA), EnjinCoin ERC-20 (ENJ), the Native Utility (NUT), 0x Protocol ERC-20 (ZRX), Aelf ERC-20 (ELF), Dawn DAO ERC-20 (AURA), Cashaaa BEP2 (CAS), Bancor ERC-20 (BNT), the Basic Attention Token ERC-20 (BAT), Golem ERC-20 (GNT), Mithril ERC-20 (MITH), MEETONE, NEXO ERC-20, Holo ERC-20 (HOT), Huobi Token ERC-20 (HT), IDEX ERC-20, IDEX Membership ERC-20 (IDXM), Bitcoin BEP2 (BTCB), Waltonchain ERC-20 (WTC), KuCoin Shares ERC-20 (KCS), Kyber Network Crystal ERC-20 (KNC), Loom Network ERC-20 (LOOM), Ripple (XRP), Everipedia (IQ), Loopring ERC-20 (LRC), Maker ERC-20 (MKR), the Status of the ERC-20 (SNT), Ankr Network BEP2 (ANKR), OmiseGO ERC-20 (OMG), ^ american English ERC-20 (^american English), Polymath ERC-20 (POLY), Populous ERC-20 (PPT), Pundi X ERC-20 (NPXS), Parser ERC-20 (REP), Revain ERC-20 (R), Binance ERC20 (BNB-ERC20), Gifto BEP2 (GTO).

Exchange of cryptocurrency

The “Limitless Crypto Exchange” tab is available for a quick transition to an unlimited exchange in 200 digital currencies — 10,000 currency pairs.

How do I update TkeySpace to version 1.3.0?

  1. Go to Google Play on your device — My apps and games — find TkeySpace in the list of apps — click Update.
  2. Go to Google Play on your device-write TkeySpace in the search — click on the app icon — Update.
After the update, you will need to restore your wallet.
submitted by tkeycoin to Tkeycoin_Official [link] [comments]

TKEYSPACE 1.2.1 — large-scale update on iOS

TKEYSPACE 1.2.1 — large-scale update on iOS

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Meet a major update in TKEYSPACE. We were debugging the engine, so to speak-modified the Tkeycoin Engine. This is a really powerful update — large scale code-level improvements and new features.
Someone may think that an application is just ten lines of code, but an expert who thinks this is wrong.
TkeySpace is a combination of many libraries, support for C++, Java), Kotlin), Swift), Objective-C, cryptography and blockchain, and a combination of best practices with new technologies. To ensure the operation of many supported blockchains, the team has done a great job to ensure that you already use the most secure multi-currency wallet TkeySpace.

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For iOS development, we use the stack: C++, Swift, Objective-C. For Android development: C++, Java, Kotlin. Cryptography and blockchain parameters are applied on both platforms.
When creating TkeySpace, we primarily looked at security, decentralization, and convenience. TkeySpace is a strong programming code inside and a light intuitive interface outside.
TkeySpace eliminates hacker attacks, hacks, and sanctions from third parties, ensuring the comfortable use of your assets.
Remember that using the so-called “blockchain wallets”, of which there are a lot on the market — you risk losing funds. There are only a few truly working applications on the blockchain, which distinguishes the technical uniqueness of TkeySpace from other wallets. How TkeySpace works, we told you in the review: TKEYSPACE is a blockchain on your mobile.

What updates are available in TkeySpace 1.2.1 on iOS

Localization in the AppStore in 8 languages

Now the TkeySpace page in the AppStore is available in 8 languages: Russian, German, English, Spanish, French, Korean, Turkish, and Chinese.
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Update on the code level

A large-scale work was done at the code level-optimization, interaction with libraries, new functions, and fixed errors that occurred during the wallet operation.

Synchronization

Fixed a local error displaying incorrect synchronization status, which affected the sending of transactions and interaction with blockchains.
The synchronization process has been completely fixed, and now the connection to the nodes is running correctly.
Node addresses are added to the local storage, and instant synchronization with nodes occurs when you log in again.

Transactions

Due to the correction of the synchronization process, errors that could occur when sending transactions have been fixed.
Added a synchronization check before sending transactions, now the wallet checks for synchronization with the network before performing any operation with digital currencies. If syncing isn’t set to 100% yet, then TkeySpace won’t let you send the transaction.

Enhanced validation of transactions and blocks in the network

Enhanced validation of the algorithm for consensus of Tkeycoin and other cryptocurrencies is enabled. This increases the security of the network, as well as speeds up the work of the TkeySpace blockchain node, the application consumes even fewer resources than before. High complexity is converted to 3 bytes, which ensures fast code processing and the least resource consumption on your device.

Checking “ Double spending”

TkeySpace now eliminates “double spending” in blockchains, which is very valuable in the Bitcoin and Litecoin networks. Your funds are safe and protected from fraudulent transactions in the form of “fake” transactions.

The bloom filter to check for nodes

All nodes are checked through the bloom filter. This allows you to exclude fraudulent nodes that try to connect to the network as real nodes of a particular blockchain.

Mining

Fixed a zero-byte decoding error that could cause the “mining reward” to not display in TkeySpace. Now all miners can extract currencies Tkeycoin, DASH, Litecoin, Bitcoin Cash, Bitcoin, Ethereum directly to Addresses from the TkeySpace app, which is very convenient, and most importantly, safe and always at hand.

The increased privacy of transaction

Implemented deterministic lexicographic sorting using hashes of previous transactions and output indexes for sorting transaction input data, as well as values and scriptPubKeys for sorting transaction output data.
The new transaction model makes it harder to identify certain wallets and increases privacy by using smart contracts.

Improvements at the TkeySpace interface level:

Upgraded currency rates

Now you can get detailed market statistics, both for 1 day and for several years. Statistics are available for periods: 1 day, 7 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years. Statistics on volumes are available for both 1 hour and 24 hours.
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News

In the market data section, there is a section with current news of the cryptocurrency market.

Function — to hide the balance

On the main screen of the TkeySpace app, you can completely hide your balance. Tap on the Balance, it will be automatically hidden from the main screen. This feature allows you to further enhance your privacy.
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New currency

  • Added Litecoin (LTC) cryptocurrency;
  • Added 9 new tokens: Huobi Token (HT), KuCoin Shares (KCS), Golem (GNT), Ankr Network (ANKR), EOSDT, OmiseGO (OMG), Prospectors Gold (PGL), Pundi X (NPXS), NEXO.

To upgrade to the TkeySpace version-1.2.1 — we recommend completely reinstalling the TkeySpace app:

Delete the app — Install the app — Launch the wallet — click Restore Wallet — enter Backup phrases separated by a space — wait for syncing — now your TkeySpace wallet is fully ready to work.
App store: https://apps.apple.com/app/tkeyspace-future-focused/id1500778512 The official website of the keyspace: https://wallet.tkeycoin.com/
Suggestions for improving the app, errors that occur in the wallet, please send to our support service — [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
submitted by tkeycoin to Tkeycoin_Official [link] [comments]

Tkeycoin — security, that’s what we’re betting on

Tkeycoin — security, that’s what we’re betting on
Today we will talk about the security of using the Tkeycoin platform and the TKEYSPACE mobile blockchain wallet.
Tkeycoin is a peer-to-peer payment system based on p2p principles and the concept of electronic cash. P2P technology is a fairer means of mutual settlements between users and companies around the world. Modern payment systems are imperfect and may depend on the will of high-ranking officials.
We approached the market from an economic and scientific point of view, borrowing the best from Bitcoin, Ethereum, DASH, and other alternative currencies, mixing modern concepts and building on the global experience of IBM, Microsoft and a number of other companies and research.
The Tkeycoin blockchain is protected by various mechanisms that include advanced cryptographic methods and mathematical models of behavior and decision-making. Blockchain technology prevents duplication or destruction of digital assets.

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In addition to providing security and recording transactions in registers, cryptography also plays a role in ensuring the security of wallets used to store Tkeycoin. Paired public and private keys, which respectively allow users to receive and send payments, are created using asymmetric encryption or public-key cryptography. Public keys are used to generate digital signatures for transactions, which allows you to authenticate ownership of the coins being sent.

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The asymmetric cryptography architecture does not allow anyone other than the owner of the private key to access funds stored in the cryptocurrency wallet, so these funds are kept safe until the owner decides to spend them.
In simple words, in the Tkeycoin peer-to-peer system, only you are the real owner of your money and only You have access to it.
Using tools such as a local Tkeycoin Core wallet or TkeySpace provides you with reliable storage, privacy, and security.
TkeySpace, in turn, adds maximum usability by combining the highest level of security and easy intuitive design.

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How does TKEYSPACE provide security?

TKEYSPACE is one of the first applications that support blockchain in a mobile device and is also the first decentralized application of the TKEY platform.
Its serverless architecture provides the highest level of security for storing all assets in the application. unlike centralized applications that are managed by companies, TkeySpace does not have a Central management authority and operates in accordance with all the principles of peer-to-peer networks.

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As we said above, the wallets in the blockchain have a public and private key. Centralized applications usually store users ‘private keys on their servers, which makes users’ funds vulnerable to hacker attacks or theft.
TkeySpace-stores the encrypted key only on the user’s device and in encrypted form. The encrypted key is displayed as a mnemonic phrase (backup phrase), which is very convenient for users. Unlike complex cryptographic ciphers, the phrase is easy to save or write. The backup phrase provides the maximum level of security and thanks to its usual appearance, an attacker is unlikely to ever guess what these words are and what they are for.
A mnemonic phrase is 12 or 24 words that are generated using random number entropy. If the phrase consists of 12 words, then the number of possible combinations is 2048¹² or 211³² — the phrase will have 132 security bits. To restore the wallet, you must enter the mnemonic phrase in the strict order as it was presented after generation.
And so that you do not get confused in the definitions and concepts, we will briefly describe simple and clear principles of how it all works. Let’s look briefly at the factors.

Lock Screen

The simplest thing that protects your phone from unauthorized access is Pincode, a snake, a fingerprint or a Face Id login. And it would seem that this is related to TKEYSPACE?
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  • At a minimum, it is almost impossible to open new mobile devices and pick up a pin code, even in the case of theft, most often the factory settings are reset, which leads to the deletion of all data on the phone, respectively-your funds are safe even for this reason.
  • Even if there was some “craftsman” and somehow managed to change the pin code on your device, the TKEYSPACE app will automatically delete all the keys and backup phrases, the wallet will simply be empty, and the attacker will be left with nothing.
As we can see, even a simple screen lock with a pin or fingerprint protects your data. It’s not as simple a screen lock as you and I might think.
Every platform, whether it’s Android or AppStore, uses specialized key stores. Cryptography, symmetric and asymmetric encryption, keys, and certificates are directly related to this task.
Keys and certificates that are used to protect information must also be securely protected. Android uses Keystore, a certificate and a Keystore, for this purpose.
Keystore is a specialized secret data store that is used by Java applications to encrypt, authenticate, and establish HTTPS connections.
For two-way authentication, the client and server exchange certificates, respectively, and the server and client must have a Keystore with a private/public key pair and a certificate. In other words, the Keystore is used to store keys and certificates that are used to identify the key owner (client or server).
Starting with Android 8, the encryption systems have been upgraded, the system is checked for signs of hacking at startup, and the screen lock allows you to restrict access to the device. Data encryption and the use of keys ensure the security of information when it is stored and transmitted.

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In the new version of the OS — Android 9 (Pie) — the developers also added support for hardware to protect against unauthorized changes.
Android apps run in an isolated software environment that restricts access to your information to other apps. OS components are also protected, which prevents attackers from exploiting system errors for their purposes.
Android uses both hardware and software to protect users and their data. Therefore, even at the operating system level, there are a lot of security factors. Of course, if you “flash” the phone (change the factory firmware) and enable Root access, this will reduce the security of Your device, but this is more an exception than a rule and such changes are usually introduced by very experienced users.
IOS uses Keychain — a specialized database for storing metadata and confidential information. Using a Keychain is the best practice for storing small pieces of data that are critical to your apps, such as secrets and passwords. In addition to the Keychain, Apple provides a full range of maximum protection for Your device.
And so we will continue,

Passcode in the app

Now we understand that to get access to the tools, an attacker needs to hack the hardware security of the Google and Apple giants to somehow get access to the app, which is impossible.
To increase security and eliminate other risk factors, we have included an access code (secret code) in the app.
You set an additional level of security by enabling a pin code to log in to the app. The access code additionally encrypts all data stored in the app.
Just so you understand — it’s not just numbers that you enter on the screen, this combination affects the ciphers inside the app. When creating a key, a user interface element is called. when the user swipes the screen, the application receives a random set of bytes — thus, all information is additionally covered by a new layer of cryptography.
And as we said above, if you try to disable the pin code, the app will delete all the data, and the attacker will be left with nothing.
As we have already realized, only 2 of these factors provide the maximum level of security for the TKEYSPACE application.
And the most important thing is that the application runs on the blockchain, which guarantees its full Autonomous operation, data immutability, and privacy.
Generation of new addresses, absence of accounts, phone numbers, e-mail and other personal data-provides you with a social level of security, which is a huge advantage in our time.
In a world where security is based on the level of cryptography, attackers try to influence You with the human factor using social engineering, so when you use applications with accounts, phone numbers, you have more risks.
Social engineering is a method of obtaining the necessary access to information based on the characteristics of human psychology.
For example, a copy of a SIM-card has become a new tool for fraudsters, but there is no personal information in TKEYSPACE, so even such groups of fraudsters can’t get access to your funds.

You don’t have to worry about security — it’s already built into the TKEYSPACE system.

A mixed encryption system based on the principles of computational complexity, with the deterministic generation of signatures using elliptic curves, provides absolute security and safety of user funds, and reserve phrases will help you restore funds at any moment.
A mnemonic phrase is 12 or 24 words that are generated using the entropy of random numbers.
If the phrase consists of 12 words, then the number of possible combinations is 2048¹² or 211³² — the phrase will have 132 security bits. To restore the wallet, you must enter the mnemonic phrase in the strict order as it was presented after generation.
Only you and no one else has access to the phrase. When you get the key, the app has restrictions on the screenshot, and the clipboard is disabled, which protects against malicious software.
It is you, as a user, who sees the phrases, and everything in the device is encrypted, the blockchain architecture protects against hacker attacks, information forgery, and other hacks.
For those who are a bit obsessed with persecution mania, we offer a small lifehack:
Buy several USB drives, connect them to a device that does not have access to the Internet, preferably on a clean operating system, create a text file, write backup phrases there, and encrypt the USB drives with passwords.

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Once again, to ensure security and easy recovery, it is enough to record backup phrases once and make several backups. you do not need to resort to an additional encryption method, because we have already done everything for you :)
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submitted by tkeycoin to Tkeycoin_Official [link] [comments]

TKEYSPACE — blockchain in your mobile

TKEYSPACE — blockchain in your mobile

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Someone says that the blockchain in the phone is marketing. This is possible for most applications, but not for Tkeycoin. Today we will talk about how the blockchain works in the TkeySpace app.
Who else is not in the topic, TkeySpace is a financial application for decentralized and efficient management of various cryptocurrencies, based on a distributed architecture without using a client-server.
In simple words, it is a blockchain in the user’s mobile device that excludes hacking and hacker attacks, and all data is encrypted using modern cryptographic methods.
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Blockchain

Let’s start with the most important thing — the blockchain works on the principles of P2P networks, when there is no central server and each device is both a server and a client, such an organization allows you to maintain the network performance with any number and any combination of available nodes.
For example, there are 12 machines in the network, and anyone can contact anyone. As a client (resource consumer), each of these machines can send requests for the provision of some resources to other machines within this network and receive them. As a server, each machine must process requests from other machines in the network, send what was requested, and perform some auxiliary and administrative functions.
With traditional client-server systems, we can get a completely disabled social network, messenger, or another service, given that we rely on a centralized infrastructure — we have a very specific number of points of failure. If the main data center is damaged due to an earthquake or any other event, access to information will be slowed down or completely disabled.
With a P2P solution, the failure of one network member does not affect the network operation in any way. P2P networks can easily switch to offline mode when the channel is broken — in which it will exist completely independently and without any interaction.
Instead of storing information in a single central point, as traditional recording methods do, multiple copies of the same data are stored in different locations and on different devices on the network, such as computers or mobile devices.

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This means that even if one storage point is damaged or lost, multiple copies remain secure in other locations. Similarly, if one part of the information is changed without the consent of the rightful owners, there are many other copies where the information is correct, which makes the false record invalid.
The information recorded in the blockchain can take any form, whether it is a transfer of money, ownership, transaction, someone’s identity, an agreement between two parties, or even how much electricity a light bulb used.
However, this requires confirmation from multiple devices, such as nodes in the network. Once an agreement, otherwise known as consensus, is reached between these devices to store something on the blockchain — it can’t be challenged, deleted, or changed.
The technology also allows you to perform a truly huge amount of computing in a relatively short time, which even on supercomputers would require, depending on the complexity of the task, many years or even centuries of work. This performance is achieved because a certain global task is divided into a large number of blocks, which are simultaneously performed by hundreds of thousands of devices participating in the project.

P2P messaging and syncing in TkeySpace

TkeySpace is a node of the TKEY network and other supported networks. when you launch the app, your mobile node connects to an extensive network of supported blockchains, syncs with full nodes to validate transactions and incoming information between nodes, so the nodes organize a graph of connections between them.
You can always check the node information in the TkeySpace app in the ⚙ Settings Contact and peer info App Status;

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TkeySpace creates initiating connections to servers registered in the blockchain Protocol as the main ones, from these servers it gets the addresses of nodes to which it can join, in turn, the nodes to which the connection occurred share information about other nodes.

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TkeySpace sends network messages to nodes from supported blockchains in the app to get up-to-date data from the network.
The Protocol uses data structures for communication between nodes, such as block propagation over the network, so before network messages are read, nodes check the “magic number”, check the first bytes, and determine the type of data structure. In the blockchain, the “magic number” is the network ID used to filter messages and block traffic from other p2p networks.
Magic numbers are used in computer science, both for files and protocols. They identify the type of file/data structure. A program that receives such a file/data structure can check the magic number and immediately find out the intended type of this file/data structure.
The first message that your node sends is called a Version Message. In response, the node waits for a Verack message to establish a connection between other peers. The exchange of such messages is called a “handshake”.

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After the “handshake” is set, TkeySpace will start connecting to other nodes in the network to determine the last block at the end of the required blockchain. At this point — nodes request information about blocks they know using GetBlock messages — in response, your node receives an inv (Inventory Message) from another node with the information that it has the information that was requested by the TkeySpace node.
In response to the received message, inv — TkeySpace sends a GetData message containing a list of blocks starting immediately after the last known hash.

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Loading and storing blocks

After exchanging messages, the block information is loaded and transactions are uploaded to your node. To avoid storing tons of information and optimize hard disk space and data processing speed, we use RDBMS — PostgreSQL in full nodes (local computer wallet).
In the TkeySpace mobile app, we use SQLite, and validation takes place by uploading block headers through the Merkle Tree, using the bloom filter — this allows you to optimize the storage of your mobile device as much as possible.
The block header includes its hash, the hash of the previous block, transaction hashes, and additional service information.
Block headers in the Tkeycoin network=84 bytes due to the extension of parameters to support nChains, which will soon be launched in “combat” mode. The titles of the Bitcoin block, Dash, Litecoin=80 bytes.

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And so, let’s continue — application nodes receive information from the blockchain by uploading block headers, all data is synchronized using the Merkle Tree, or rather your node receives and validates information from the Merkle root.
The hash tree was developed in 1979 by Ralph Merkle and named in his honor. The structure of the system has received this name also because it resembles a tree.
The Merkle tree is a complete binary tree with leaf vertexes containing hashes from data blocks, and inner vertexes containing hashes from adding values in child vertexes. The root node of the tree contains a hash from the entire data set, meaning the hash tree is a unidirectional hash function. The Merkle tree is used for the efficient storage of transactions in the cryptocurrency blockchain. It allows you to get a “fingerprint” of all transactions in the block, as well as effectively verify transactions.

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Hash trees have an advantage over hash chains or hash functions. When using hash trees, it is much less expensive to prove that a certain block of data belongs to a set. Since different blocks are often independent data, such as transactions or parts of files, we are interested in being able to check only one block without recalculating the hashes for the other nodes in the tree.
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The Merkle Tree scheme allows you to check whether the hash value of a particular transaction is included in Merkle Root, without having all the other transactions in the block. So by having the transaction, block header, and Merkle Branch for that transaction requested from the full node, the digital wallet can make sure that the transaction was confirmed in a specific block.

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The Merkle tree, which is used to prove that a transaction is included in a block, is also very well scaled. Because each new “layer” added to the tree doubles the total number of “leaves” it can represent. You don’t need a deep tree to compactly prove transaction inclusion, even among blocks with millions of transactions.

Statistical constants and nChains

To support the Tkeycoin cryptocurrency, the TkeySpace application uses additional statistical constants to prevent serialization of Merkle tree hashes, which provides an additional layer of security.
Also, for Tkeycoin, support for multi-chains (nChains) is already included in the TkeySpace app, which will allow you to use the app in the future with most of the features of the TKEY Protocol, including instant transactions.

The Bloom Filter

An additional level of privacy is provided by the bloom filter — which is a probabilistic data structure that allows you to check whether an element belongs to a set.

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The bloom filter looks for whether a particular transaction is linked to Alice, not whether Alice has a specific cryptocurrency. In this way, transactions and received IDs are analyzed through a bloom filter. When “Alice wants to know about transaction X”, an ID is requested for transaction X, which is compared with the filled segments in her bloom filter. If “Yes” is received, the node can get the information and verify the transaction.

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HD support

The multi-currency wallet TkeySpace is based on HD (or hierarchical determinism), a privacy-oriented method for generating and managing addresses. Each wallet address is generated from an xPub wallet (or extended public key). The app is completely anonymous — and individual address is generated for each transaction to accept a particular cryptocurrency. Even for low-level programming, using the same address is negative for the system, not to mention your privacy. We recommend that you always use a new address for transactions to ensure the necessary level of privacy and security.
The EXT_PUBLIC_KEY and EXT_SECRET_KEY values for DASH, Bitcoin, and Litecoin are completely identical. Tkeycoin uses its values, as well as other methods for storing transactions and blocks (RDBMS), and of course — nChains.

Secret key

Wallets in the blockchain have public and private keys.
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Centralized applications usually store users’ private keys on their servers, which makes users’ funds vulnerable to hacker attacks or theft.
A private key is a special combination of characters that provides access to cryptocurrencies stored on the account. Only a person who knows the key can move and spend digital assets.
TkeySpace — stores the encrypted key only on the user’s device and in encrypted form. The encrypted key is displayed as a mnemonic phrase (backup phrase), which is very convenient for users. Unlike complex cryptographic ciphers, the phrase is easy to save or write. A backup keyword provides the maximum level of security.
A mnemonic phrase is 12 or 24 words that are generated using random number entropy. If a phrase consists of 12 words, then the number of possible combinations is 204⁸¹² or 21¹³² — the phrase will have 132 security bits. To restore the wallet, you must enter the mnemonic phrase in strict order, as it was presented after generation.

Result

Now we understand that your application TkeySpace is a node of the blockchain that communicates with other nodes using p2p messages, stores block headers and validate information using the Merkle Tree, verifies transactions, filters information using the bloom filter, and operates completely in a decentralized model. The application code contains all the necessary blockchain settings for communicating with the network, the so-called chain parameters.
TkeySpace is a new generation mobile app. A completely new level of security, easy user-friendly interfaces and all the necessary features that are required to work with cryptocurrency.
submitted by tkeycoin to Tkeycoin_Official [link] [comments]

Lost access to my Bitpay wallet without backup, but have iPhone backup - Is it recoverable? Reward offered

Hi,
I know how stupid this was for me to do and I'm really kicking myself, but a few years ago I opened a Bitpay account and didn't save the 12 word backup phrase. It was always just on my phone and accessible without it.
At some point last year, Bitpay released an app update which basically forced me to create a new wallet, which was still fine, since I didn't have any funds on the old one which got lost in the update.
Fastforward to last night, I went to withdraw my funds from Binance, and thought I selected my CoinBase bitcoin address, but accidentally selected the old Bitpay one. The funds were sent to that wallet which I no longer have access to.
The only thing that I do have, is an iPhone backup with app data from September 2018. Technically the app data should include my wallet, but as soon as I restore my iPhone to that backup, it forces me to update Bitpay, which again wipes out all the data that was on there and forces me to create a new wallet?
Is there any way for me to open the Bitpay app in the OLD VERSION that still had my wallet on there that was accessible? My phone won't seem to let me do that as it forces me to update it.
*I'm feeling pretty hopeless so if anyone is able to help me get my funds back I will send you a percentage of the recovered funds as a reward (a pretty sizeable amount)*
submitted by whygivemethisheart to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Groestlcoin 6th Anniversary Release

Introduction

Dear Groestlers, it goes without saying that 2020 has been a difficult time for millions of people worldwide. The groestlcoin team would like to take this opportunity to wish everyone our best to everyone coping with the direct and indirect effects of COVID-19. Let it bring out the best in us all and show that collectively, we can conquer anything.
The centralised banks and our national governments are facing unprecedented times with interest rates worldwide dropping to record lows in places. Rest assured that this can only strengthen the fundamentals of all decentralised cryptocurrencies and the vision that was seeded with Satoshi's Bitcoin whitepaper over 10 years ago. Despite everything that has been thrown at us this year, the show must go on and the team will still progress and advance to continue the momentum that we have developed over the past 6 years.
In addition to this, we'd like to remind you all that this is Groestlcoin's 6th Birthday release! In terms of price there have been some crazy highs and lows over the years (with highs of around $2.60 and lows of $0.000077!), but in terms of value– Groestlcoin just keeps getting more valuable! In these uncertain times, one thing remains clear – Groestlcoin will keep going and keep innovating regardless. On with what has been worked on and completed over the past few months.

UPDATED - Groestlcoin Core 2.18.2

This is a major release of Groestlcoin Core with many protocol level improvements and code optimizations, featuring the technical equivalent of Bitcoin v0.18.2 but with Groestlcoin-specific patches. On a general level, most of what is new is a new 'Groestlcoin-wallet' tool which is now distributed alongside Groestlcoin Core's other executables.
NOTE: The 'Account' API has been removed from this version which was typically used in some tip bots. Please ensure you check the release notes from 2.17.2 for details on replacing this functionality.

How to Upgrade?

Windows
If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), then run the installer.
OSX
If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), run the dmg and drag Groestlcoin Core to Applications.
Ubuntu
http://groestlcoin.org/forum/index.php?topic=441.0

Other Linux

http://groestlcoin.org/forum/index.php?topic=97.0

Download

Download the Windows Installer (64 bit) here
Download the Windows Installer (32 bit) here
Download the Windows binaries (64 bit) here
Download the Windows binaries (32 bit) here
Download the OSX Installer here
Download the OSX binaries here
Download the Linux binaries (64 bit) here
Download the Linux binaries (32 bit) here
Download the ARM Linux binaries (64 bit) here
Download the ARM Linux binaries (32 bit) here

Source

ALL NEW - Groestlcoin Moonshine iOS/Android Wallet

Built with React Native, Moonshine utilizes Electrum-GRS's JSON-RPC methods to interact with the Groestlcoin network.
GRS Moonshine's intended use is as a hot wallet. Meaning, your keys are only as safe as the device you install this wallet on. As with any hot wallet, please ensure that you keep only a small, responsible amount of Groestlcoin on it at any given time.

Features

Download

iOS
Android

Source

ALL NEW! – HODL GRS Android Wallet

HODL GRS connects directly to the Groestlcoin network using SPV mode and doesn't rely on servers that can be hacked or disabled.
HODL GRS utilizes AES hardware encryption, app sandboxing, and the latest security features to protect users from malware, browser security holes, and even physical theft. Private keys are stored only in the secure enclave of the user's phone, inaccessible to anyone other than the user.
Simplicity and ease-of-use is the core design principle of HODL GRS. A simple recovery phrase (which we call a Backup Recovery Key) is all that is needed to restore the user's wallet if they ever lose or replace their device. HODL GRS is deterministic, which means the user's balance and transaction history can be recovered just from the backup recovery key.

Features

Download

Main Release (Main Net)
Testnet Release

Source

ALL NEW! – GroestlcoinSeed Savior

Groestlcoin Seed Savior is a tool for recovering BIP39 seed phrases.
This tool is meant to help users with recovering a slightly incorrect Groestlcoin mnemonic phrase (AKA backup or seed). You can enter an existing BIP39 mnemonic and get derived addresses in various formats.
To find out if one of the suggested addresses is the right one, you can click on the suggested address to check the address' transaction history on a block explorer.

Features

Live Version (Not Recommended)

https://www.groestlcoin.org/recovery/

Download

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/mnemonic-recovery/archive/master.zip

Source

ALL NEW! – Vanity Search Vanity Address Generator

NOTE: NVidia GPU or any CPU only. AMD graphics cards will not work with this address generator.
VanitySearch is a command-line Segwit-capable vanity Groestlcoin address generator. Add unique flair when you tell people to send Groestlcoin. Alternatively, VanitySearch can be used to generate random addresses offline.
If you're tired of the random, cryptic addresses generated by regular groestlcoin clients, then VanitySearch is the right choice for you to create a more personalized address.
VanitySearch is a groestlcoin address prefix finder. If you want to generate safe private keys, use the -s option to enter your passphrase which will be used for generating a base key as for BIP38 standard (VanitySearch.exe -s "My PassPhrase" FXPref). You can also use VanitySearch.exe -ps "My PassPhrase" which will add a crypto secure seed to your passphrase.
VanitySearch may not compute a good grid size for your GPU, so try different values using -g option in order to get the best performances. If you want to use GPUs and CPUs together, you may have best performances by keeping one CPU core for handling GPU(s)/CPU exchanges (use -t option to set the number of CPU threads).

Features

Usage

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/VanitySearch#usage

Download

Source

ALL NEW! – Groestlcoin EasyVanity 2020

Groestlcoin EasyVanity 2020 is a windows app built from the ground-up and makes it easier than ever before to create your very own bespoke bech32 address(es) when whilst not connected to the internet.
If you're tired of the random, cryptic bech32 addresses generated by regular Groestlcoin clients, then Groestlcoin EasyVanity2020 is the right choice for you to create a more personalised bech32 address. This 2020 version uses the new VanitySearch to generate not only legacy addresses (F prefix) but also Bech32 addresses (grs1 prefix).

Features

Download

Source

Remastered! – Groestlcoin WPF Desktop Wallet (v2.19.0.18)

Groestlcoin WPF is an alternative full node client with optional lightweight 'thin-client' mode based on WPF. Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) is one of Microsoft's latest approaches to a GUI framework, used with the .NET framework. Its main advantages over the original Groestlcoin client include support for exporting blockchain.dat and including a lite wallet mode.
This wallet was previously deprecated but has been brought back to life with modern standards.

Features

Remastered Improvements

Download

Source

ALL NEW! – BIP39 Key Tool

Groestlcoin BIP39 Key Tool is a GUI interface for generating Groestlcoin public and private keys. It is a standalone tool which can be used offline.

Features

Download

Windows
Linux :
 pip3 install -r requirements.txt python3 bip39\_gui.py 

Source

ALL NEW! – Electrum Personal Server

Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server aims to make using Electrum Groestlcoin wallet more secure and more private. It makes it easy to connect your Electrum-GRS wallet to your own full node.
It is an implementation of the Electrum-grs server protocol which fulfils the specific need of using the Electrum-grs wallet backed by a full node, but without the heavyweight server backend, for a single user. It allows the user to benefit from all Groestlcoin Core's resource-saving features like pruning, blocks only and disabled txindex. All Electrum-GRS's feature-richness like hardware wallet integration, multi-signature wallets, offline signing, seed recovery phrases, coin control and so on can still be used, but connected only to the user's own full node.
Full node wallets are important in Groestlcoin because they are a big part of what makes the system be trust-less. No longer do people have to trust a financial institution like a bank or PayPal, they can run software on their own computers. If Groestlcoin is digital gold, then a full node wallet is your own personal goldsmith who checks for you that received payments are genuine.
Full node wallets are also important for privacy. Using Electrum-GRS under default configuration requires it to send (hashes of) all your Groestlcoin addresses to some server. That server can then easily spy on your transactions. Full node wallets like Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server would download the entire blockchain and scan it for the user's own addresses, and therefore don't reveal to anyone else which Groestlcoin addresses they are interested in.
Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server can also broadcast transactions through Tor which improves privacy by resisting traffic analysis for broadcasted transactions which can link the IP address of the user to the transaction. If enabled this would happen transparently whenever the user simply clicks "Send" on a transaction in Electrum-grs wallet.
Note: Currently Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server can only accept one connection at a time.

Features

Download

Windows
Linux / OSX (Instructions)

Source

UPDATED – Android Wallet 7.38.1 - Main Net + Test Net

The app allows you to send and receive Groestlcoin on your device using QR codes and URI links.
When using this app, please back up your wallet and email them to yourself! This will save your wallet in a password protected file. Then your coins can be retrieved even if you lose your phone.

Changes

Download

Main Net
Main Net (FDroid)
Test Net

Source

UPDATED – Groestlcoin Sentinel 3.5.06 (Android)

Groestlcoin Sentinel is a great solution for anyone who wants the convenience and utility of a hot wallet for receiving payments directly into their cold storage (or hardware wallets).
Sentinel accepts XPUB's, YPUB'S, ZPUB's and individual Groestlcoin address. Once added you will be able to view balances, view transactions, and (in the case of XPUB's, YPUB's and ZPUB's) deterministically generate addresses for that wallet.
Groestlcoin Sentinel is a fork of Groestlcoin Samourai Wallet with all spending and transaction building code removed.

Changes

Download

Source

UPDATED – P2Pool Test Net

Changes

Download

Pre-Hosted Testnet P2Pool is available via http://testp2pool.groestlcoin.org:21330/static/

Source

submitted by Yokomoko_Saleen to groestlcoin [link] [comments]

Why Bitcoin was created

NOTE: Not sure if this is useful at all. I welcome corrections. This was off the top of my head, probably a lot of stuff can be made clearer.

I see many people here are not really understanding why bitcoin was created.
As a result, many are unable to answer these questions:
  1. Why bitcoin over another crypo-currency?
  2. If bitcoin is slower than CC why use it?
  3. [your-question-here]?
If you can answer "Why was Bitcoin created?" you will automatically form your own opinion on the questions above!

Wrong Question
The original question we asked is kind of the wrong question to ask. It has a simple (unsatisfying) answer:
Question: Why was Bitcoin created?
Answer: To prevent spending the same digital dollar twice.

Wait.. what? Before we understand above, let's first understand the problem with digital money...

Money: physical vs. digital
Physical money is easy. Let's say we decide to use apples as currency. If I have one apple and you have one apple, and I give you one apple, than you now have two apples and I have none.
Digital money is hard. Let's say we decide to use cat pictures as currency. If I have a picture of a cat named "sparkles.jpeg" and you have a picture of a cat named "rocket.jpeg", and I send you "sparkles.jpeg" - then you now have two pictures of a cat, but I still have one!
Similarly, if we were to represent digital dollars as information (file, record in a database or photo of a dollar), then anytime we send a dollar, we effectively create a copy of it.
Why is this a problem?

Double Spending
Suppose I have only $1 digital dollar on my hard-drive (doesn't matter how it is stored - it can be a file called "Wallet.txt" with a single entry "Me = 1").
Let's say there are two online stores: Tables.com and Chairs.com. Tables.com sells tables online. Chairs.com sells chairs online.
The prices are as follows:
  1. Tables are $1 digital dollars each
  2. Chairs are $0.5 digital dollars each
I am now going to buy 1 table and 2 chairs (total cost $2) for only $1 dollar.
Here is how I can do this:
  1. First, I will create a copy of my wallet (where my digital dollars are stored). Let's called it "Wallet.txt.backup"
  2. Then, I will send $1 digital dollars to Tables.com store and ask them to ship me 1 Table.
  3. After my order is accepted, I will immediately immediately restore my "Wallet.txt.backup" file (which still has $1 dollars in it) and...
  4. Send $1 digital dollars to Chairs.com and order 2 chairs.

Since Chairs.com doesn't know about Tables.com (they don't have direct communication channel), they will both ship me the goods.
I have now spent the same dollar twice. I have double spent my dollar.

Banks solve Double Spending
There is a very simple (and elegant) solution to this problem. Instead of letting everyone keep track of their own Wallet.txt file, let one person do it and send all transactions through them.
Let's say that now we have to send every transaction through Mr. Knab. So if I want to pay Chairs.com I don't send the digital dollar to the store directly, but instead I send my digital dollar to Mr. Knab and ask him to forward my digital dollar to Chairs.com
Let's see how this prevents spending the same dollar twice:
  1. Mr. Knab knows that I have $1 digital dollar to my name. He stores it in a file called "Wallet.txt".
  2. I ask Mr. Knab to send $1 digital dollar to Tables.com store to order 1 Table.
  3. Mr. Knab subtracts $1 from me in "Wallet.txt" and adds it to the line that corresponds to Tables.com (how he does this is irrelevant - the important thing is that he remembers how many digital dollars I have)
  4. Mr. Knab sends an email to Tables.com saying "You got $1 digital dollar, please ship a Table to this guy".
  5. (Now comes me trying to cheat) After my order is accepted, I immediately ask Mr. Knab to send $1 digital dollar to Chairs.com to order 2 chairs.
  6. Mr. Knab checks "Wallet.txt" and sees that I have $0 digital dollars remaining and rejects my order.
I could not spend the same digital dollar twice.
In the real world "Mr. Knab" is the bank. It is an institution that stores your digital wallet to make sure you can't cheat.
Bank is a tool to prevent double spending.

The Right Question
Now that we understand the challenge with digital money (making sure you don't spend a digital dollar twice) and how the bank solves this (by storing your digital wallet for you) we can ask the proper question:
Question: Why was Bitcoin created to prevent spending the same digital dollar twice if the bank already does it?
Answer: Bitcoin prevents spending the same digital dollar twice without a bank.

Let us reiterate this point:
Bitcoin was created to prevent spending the same digital dollar twice without a bank.

Useful or Not?
Whether this property (preventing double spending without intermediaries) is a useful thing is not what we are concerned with here. Think of bitcoin as solving a challenge: hey, we can prevent double spending with a bank in between, can we do this without a bank? We leave the question whether Bitcoin is "useful" to others.


How Bitcoin solves this problem (Short version)
Bitcoin network chooses a random computer to briefly act as a bank. That computer then makes sure no dollar is spent twice. Randomly choosing computer is hard and Bitcoin solves this problem by requiring proof of work, the first to provide it will get chosen as the bank. Being chosen as a bank pays (block reward) and everyone wants to provide proof of work first. The more people compete the harder it becomes to be the bank. The harder it is to become the bank, the more secure the Bitcoin is.

How Bitcoin solves this problem (long version)


I lied. Bitcoin still has a bank. Only this bank is one of the people who participates in Bitcoin network: let's call them a person-bank. This person-bank is chosen randomly for EVERY transaction (*gross simplification*). The person-bank is responsible for verifying that the transaction is correct. Since Bitcoin network sends a copy of the Wallet.txt file to EVERY person, anyone can verify any transaction. If the person-bank verifies transaction correctly - it gets paid. Otherwise it gets nothing.

Picking random person is hard
The problem then becomes how to pick a person-bank randomly, so that you can't always have Joe being the person-bank and spending his own dollars twice.
Turns out the problem if picking a random person from a group of people is really hard to do in practice. Bitcoin solves this problem by posing a puzzle to each person - and the first person to come up with an answer gets to act as a person-bank for the next transaction.
This puzzle must be so hard, that nobody should be able to do any better on it than anybody else. It's hard to think of this in human terms, because with practice we get better at everything. However, imagine that everyone in the world got REALLY REALLY drunk and was forced to throw darts. So that no matter how much practice anyone had with darts, everyone was equally horrible. Every time anyone threw a dart it would always land randomly. Now, picking a random person is easy - pick the person who threw the dart into the middle of the board.
In Bitcoin this puzzle involves hashing and the answer to it is called proof of work. But this is all really irrelevant. What is important is that no computer can practice to get better at solving this puzzle. They are all equally drunk when it comes to the solution.
All the bitcoin computers who are trying to solve the puzzle are called miners. The winning participant gets a lot of money as a reward: currently 12.5BTC.

Security depends on puzzle complexity
If the puzzle is too easy, then someone can always solve it first (by buying a bigger computer) and approve their own invalid transaction. Bitcoin increases the difficulty of the puzzle if it takes the network less than 10 minutes to solve it. It decreases the difficulty if it takes more than 10 minutes to solve it.
If there are 1 person trying to solve a puzzle and another joins, then the difficulty will increase by two. This is because 1 person solved the puzzle every 10 minutes, so if another joins, they will solve it twice as fast (think two drunken people throwing darts instead of one - it will take half the time to hit the center).
If we have 100,000 people trying to solve a puzzle and another person joins, this will barely affect the difficulty. Alternatively, if we wanted to beat 100,000 and solve the puzzle first, we would need as much computation power as all those people combined (and a little bit more). We would need about 51% of the power of the whole bitcoin mining network.
That is why for Bitcoin to be secure, the puzzle must be hard for anyone on the planet EARTH to solve.

If bitcoin was only mined by one country, then another country could easily purchase enough computers (say 10x as many) to make sure they act as the bank every time. They could then spend the same dollar twice (for example, they could buy some tanks from another country, but then revert the money back to their wallet).
submitted by e5pK44sqszwxjEFL to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Need a one stop location for information on wallets. Not the best wallet brands but what they are, the types and general info, etc.

I'm trying to pull the trigger on getting a wallet to transfer my bitcoin to. I'm debating between a mobile wallet and hardware wallet. I'm not interested in the brand you suggestion but general info on wallets. What are they, how are they used, what's the backup if you lose it? I'm also really interested in if you have a seed phrase from say a mobile wallet can I restore that seed phrase onto a hardware wallet.
submitted by Reach_Beyond to BitcoinBeginners [link] [comments]

AsicVault - Frequently Asked Questions

When was AsicVault established and how is it funded?
AsicVault was established 2016. It is funded by founders and corporate investors. Please see Crunchbase.

How can it be 1,000 times harder to crack compared to other BIP-39 hardware wallets?
BIP-39 hardware wallets are working on very low performance microcontrollers or secure elements. They are doing only 2,048 iterations of PBKDF2 SHA-512 that is even less than old NIST recommendation of 10,000 rounds from year 2016.
Performing higher number of PBKDF2 SHA-512 is standard practice for good security. iTunes does it, LastPass does it and Veracrypt as well. Even Ledger agrees that this very low number is the main problem of BIP-39.
AsicVault specially designed SHA-512 accelerator inside high performance secure chip is at least 340 times faster than common microcontrollers. The number of PBKDF2 SHA-512 rounds is set to be exactly 1,000 times higher than BIP-39, hence the cost to crack AsicVault is also 1,000 times bigger.
Please read in-depth teardown review and validation of AsicVault SHA-512 performance here.
You can perform independent analysis according to this PDF and our device performance is shown on this video.

Does it support BIP-39 passphrase?
Yes, AsicVault supports all standard BIP-39 seed words and additional passphrase (so-called 25th word). You can restore your HD wallet account created by other hardware wallets (Ledger, Trezor, Keepkey) without any additional steps. AsicVault always opens standard security BIP-39 account and high security BIP-39 accounts at the same time.

Why two processors?
Common design practice, also followed by Ledger, is to separate secure and non-secure code. Our advantage is that these two RISC-V processors are inside a single secure chip. This way the Security CPU has full access to the Application CPU RAM. This makes it possible to do proper secure boot.

Why RISC-V?
Open instruction set. Possibility to have open source CPU and extensions. We have already implemented several custom instructions.

Do I need a computer to initialize the device?
No. You can supply power from wall adapter or battery bank. AsicVault supports true air-gapped environment.
You can perform full device initialization, seed word generation and seed word backup without connection to the computer. You can also charge the device and check the status the same way.

Can I use USB extender cables?
Certified USB2.0 extender cables can be used. We don’t recommend extender cables while using USB3.1 features of the device. The device can detect (some) bad cables and show warning messages about them. It is not recommended to use cables/extenders longer than 2.5m. In any case, cables with lower AWG value are better, such as AWG20.

How hot does the device get?
During normal operation AsicVault device temperature reaches 35-37C. High speed USB3.0 operation adds additional 7C. AsicVault utilizes full Aluminum enclosure as an effective heatsink. Internal chips can tolerate up to +85C, so you never need to worry about them overheating. There are no Lithium batteries inside the device that are known for leaking and not tolerating high temperatures.

How long does the active anti-tamper system work?
Active anti-tamper protects your device at least 2 weeks, possibly up to 45 days, after you have fully charged the device. It takes just 15 minutes to charge the supercapacitors again. It is advisable to connect the device to a power source at least once per week. Different anti-tamper settings affect the anti-tamper aggressiveness, sensitivity and power consumption.
It is also good practice to enter your passphrase weekly so that you will not forget it.

How often can I charge it? Do the batteries age?
You can charge it as often as you like, several times per day. Supercapacitors can be charged 50,000 – 1,000,000 times during their lifetime compared to common Lithium batteries that only allow 500-1,000 times. Therefore even 10 times per day for 10 years should be fine. At least weekly charging is recommended for best anti-tamper protection.

How long are private keys safely stored inside device before the memory gets weak and they are lost?
Data retention time of Flash memory inside the main chip is 20 years. Additional encryption keys stored inside FRAM can last for 40 years at temperatures below 70C. These values are higher than the expected lifetime of the device. In any case you must make paper backup(s) of your seed words.

Can it store the whole Bitcoin blockchain inside the device?
No. The device is not designed to store large amounts of data. Internal 128-megabyte Flash is used to store applications. There are thousands of copies of the blockchain, storing yet another copy is not meaningful or necessary.

What is FIPS 140-2 highest Level 4?
FIPS 140-2 is Federal Information Processing Standard.
Level 4 requires that:
  1. physical security mechanisms provide a complete envelope of protection around the cryptographic module
  2. with the intent of detecting and responding to all unauthorized attempts at physical access
  3. Penetration of the cryptographic module enclosure from any direction has a very high probability of being detected, resulting in the immediate deletion of all plaintext CSPs
  4. Security Level 4 also protects a cryptographic module against a security compromise due to environmental conditions or fluctuations outside of the module's normal operating ranges for voltage and temperature
  5. A cryptographic module is required to include special environmental protection features designed to detect fluctuations and delete CSPs
We have used these guidelines while designing AsicVault. We meet and exceed the requirements in the following way:
  1. AsicVault has full Aluminium/Titanium enclosure that is not designed to be opened. Passive antitamper mesh protects the electronic circuits inside the device. Main secure chip also has chip level metal layer anti-tamper mesh.
  2. Active anti-tamper circuit monitors all intrusion attempts and performs immediate device zeroization upon detecting any such attempts.
  3. AsicVault has temperature, voltage and many other sensors that are continuously monitored by the anti-tamper circuit. Additionally, AsicVault has internal supercapacitor-based power reserve to run Elliptic Curve calculations and other cryptographic functions. Therefore, external voltage fluctuations can’t affect our device while performing these critical operations.
  4. Zeroization not only deletes the private keys, it also destroys internal hardware design making it impossible to perform any further analysis of the hardware.
AsicVault has not participated in formal Cryptographic Module Validation Program since we are not targeting US government users at this point.

Can AsicVault device run Linux?
It is not our priority to run Linux since it has too big overhead for hardware wallet. However, our RISC-V processors and Mark II hardware can run Linux for your custom projects.

Where can I purchase the device?
Please contact your local supplier about availability.
submitted by photonreality to AsicVaultOfficial [link] [comments]

How to Restore Your Bitcoin Wallet How to Restore Mycelium Android Bitcoin Wallet Using ... How to Backup and Restore a wallet How to backup bitcoin wallet How to recover funds from a currupted bitcoin wallet

If you’re smart enough to store your bitcoin in a noncustodial wallet, you’re smart enough to make a backup. Whether you’re using a desktop, mobile, or hardware wallet, the process is much ... You simply find the “new wallet/restore wallet” feature and, when prompted, type in your mnemonic seed. The mnemonic seeds created by the Trezor and Ledger areBIP39 and the phrases can actually be used with any BIP39-compatible wallet to restore lost bitcoin. Restoring Bitcoin Core To backup and restore Bitcoin wallet, you can use many security options provided by Handy Backup, including selecting a well-defended storage (e.g., the Wasabi S3 or some USB-connected SSD unit), using built-in encryption and compression, and making a SSL encryption for data transferring. Availability . Every edition of Handy Backup can provide an effective Bitcoin wallet backup. Due to a big ... In order to understand better how to backup and restore your e-wallet, you need to know what a cryptocurrency (in this case Bitcoin) wallet is. It’s a physical device or software service that is used to transfer your earned Bitcoins. You can easily compare it to a bank account or debit card, because you can save what you earned there, without having to withdraw the money. A wallet backup protects your bitcoins against computer or software failure. It may also help you retrieve your funds after your device was stolen or lost. There are generally 3 ways to backup a Bitcoin wallet. Different software supports different methods. Make sure you're familiar with your wallet before loading it with bitcoins.

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