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Era Swap Network White Paper

Era Swap Network White Paper

Era Swap Network

White Paper



DISCLAIMER
This Whitepaper is for Era Swap Network. Its purpose is solely to provide prospective community members with information about the Era Swap Ecosystem & Era Swap Network project. This paper is for information purposes only and does not constitute and is not intended to be an offer of securities or any other financial or investment instrument in any jurisdiction.
The Developers disclaim any and all responsibility and liability to any person for any loss or damage whatsoever arising directly or indirectly from (1) reliance on any information contained in this paper, (2) any error, omission or inaccuracy in any such information, or (3) any action resulting therefrom
Digital Assets are extremely high-risk, speculative products. You should be aware of the risks involved and fully consider before participating in Digital assets whether it’s appropriate for you. You should only participate if you are an experienced investor with sophisticated knowledge of financial markets and you fully understand the risks associated with digital assets. We strongly advise you to take independent professional advice before making any investment or participating in any way. You should check what rules and protections apply to your respective jurisdictions before investing or participating in any way. The Creators & community will not compensate you for any losses from trading, investment or participating in any way. You should read whitepaper carefully before participating and consider whether these products are right for you.

TABLE OF CONTENT

· Abstract
· Introduction to Era Swap Network
· Development Overview
· Era Swap Utility Platform
· Alpha-release Development Plan
· Era Swap Network Version 1: Specification
· Bunch Structure: 10
· Converting ES-ERC20 to ES-Na:
· Conclusion:
· Era Swap Ecosystem
· Social Links

Abstract

The early smart contracts of Era Swap Ecosystem like TimeAlly, Newly Released Tokens, Assurance, BetDeEx of Era Swap Ecosystem, are deployed on Ethereum mainnet. These smart contracts are finance-oriented (DeFi), i.e. most of the transactions are about spending or earning of Era Swap tokens which made paying the gas fees in Ether somewhat intuitive to the user (withdrawal charges in bank, paying tax while purchasing burgers) but transactions that are not token oriented like adding a nominee or appointee voting also needs Ether to be charged. As more Era Swap Token Utility platform ideas kept appending to the Era Swap Main Whitepaper, more non-financial transaction situations arise like updating status, sending a message, resolving a dispute and so on. Paying extensively for such actions all day and waiting for the transaction to be included in a block and then waiting for enough block confirmations due to potential chain re-organizations is counter-intuitive to existing free solutions like Facebook, Gmail. This is the main barrier that is stopping Web 3.0 from coming to the mainstream.
As alternatives to Ethereum, there are few other smart contract development platforms that propose their own separate blockchain that features for higher transaction throughput, but they compromise on decentralization for improving transaction speeds. Moreover, the ecosystem tools are most advancing in Ethereum than any other platform due to the massive developer community.
With Era Swap Network, the team aims to achieve scalability, speed and low-cost transactions for Era Swap Ecosystem (which is currently not feasible on Ethereum mainnet), without compromising much on trustless asset security for Era Swap Community users.

Introduction to Era Swap Network

Era Swap Network (ESN) aims to solve the above-mentioned problems faced by Era Swap Ecosystem users by building a side-blockchain on top of Ethereum blockchain using the Plasma Framework.
Era Swap Network leverages the Decentralisation and Security of Ethereum and the Scalability achieved in the side-chain, this solves the distributed blockchain trilema. In most of the other blockchains, blocks are a collection of transactions and all the transactions in one block are mined by a miner in one step. Era Swap Network will consist of Bunches of Blocks of Era Swap Ecosystem Transactions.

Decentralization

Layer 2


Scalable and Secure

A miner mines all the blocks in a bunch consequently and will commit the bunch-root to the ESN Plasma Smart Contract on Ethereum mainnet.

Development Overview
Initially, we will start with a simple Proof-of-Authority (PoA) based consensus of EVM to start the development and testing of Era Swap Ecosystem Smart Contracts as quickly as possible on the test-net. We will call this as an alpha-release of ESN test-net and only internal developers will work with this for developing smart contracts for Era Swap Ecosystem. User’s funds in a Plasma implementation with a simple consensus like PoA are still secured as already committed bunch-roots cannot be reversed.
Eventually, we want to arrive on a more control-decentralized consensus algorithm like Proof-of-Stake (PoS) probably, so that even if the chain operator shuts down their services, a single Era Swap Ecosystem user somewhere in the world can keep the ecosystem alive by running software on their system and similarly more people can join to decentralize the control further. In this PoS version, we will modify the Parity Ethereum client in such a way, that at least 50% of transaction fees collected will go to the Luck Pool of NRT Smart Contract on Ethereum mainnet and rest can be kept by miner of the blocks/bunch of blocks if they wish. After achieving such an implementation, we will release this as a beta version to the community for testing the software on their computers with Kovan ERC20 Era Swaps (Ethereum test-net).

Era Swap Decentralised Ecosystem
Following platforms are to be integrated:
  1. Era Swap Token Contract (adapted ERC20 on Ethereum) The original asset will lie on Ethereum to avoid loss due to any kind of failure in ESN.
  2. Plasma Manager Contract (on Ethereum) To store ESN bunch headers on Ethereum.
  3. Reverse Plasma Manager Contract (on ESN) Bridge to convert ES to ES native and ES native to ES. User deposits ES on Mainnet Plasma, gives proof on ESN and gets ES native credited to their account in a decentralised way.
  4. NRT Manager Contract (on Ethereum or on ESN) If it is possible to send ES from an ESN contract to luck pool of NRT Manager Contract on Ethereum, then it’s ok otherwise, NRT Manager will need to be deployed on ESN for ability to add ES to luck pool.
  5. Era Swap Wallet (React Native App for managing ESs and ES natives) Secure wallet to store multiple private keys in it, mainly for managing ES and ES native, sending ES or ES native, also for quick and easy BuzCafe payments.
  6. TimeAlly (on Ethereum or on ESN) On whichever chain NRT Manager is deployed, TimeAlly would be deployed on the same chain.
  7. Assurance (on Ethereum or on ESN) On whichever chain NRT Manager is deployed, TimeAlly would be deployed on the same chain.
  8. DaySwappers (on ESN) KYC manager for platform. For easily distributing rewards to tree referees.
  9. TimeSwappers (on ESN) Freelance market place with decentralised dispute management.
  10. SwappersWall (on ESN) Decentralised social networking with power tokens.
  11. BuzCafe (on ESN) Listing of shops and finding shops easily and quick payment.
  12. BetDeEx (on ESN) Decentralised Prediction proposals, prediction and results.
  13. DateSwappers (on ESN) Meeting ensured using cryptography.
  14. ComputeEx (on Ethereum / centralised way) Exchange assets.
  15. Era Swap Academy (on ESN / centralised way) Learn. Loop. Leap. How to implement ES Academy is not clear. One idea is if content is constantly being modified, then subscription expired people will only have the hash of old content while new content hash is only available to people who have done Dayswapper KYC and paid for the course. Dayswapper KYC is required because this way people won’t share their private keys to someone else.
  16. Value of Farmers (tbd) The exchange of farming commodities produced by farmers in VoF can be deposited to warehouses where the depositors will get ERC721 equivalent tokens for their commodities (based on unique tagging).
  17. DeGameStation (on ESN) Decentralised Gaming Station. Games in which players take turns can be written in Smart Contract. Games like Chess, Poker, 3 Patti can be developed. Users can come to DeGameStation and join an open game or start a new game and wait for other players to join.

Alpha-release Development Plan
  1. Deploying Parity Node customized according to Era Swap Whitepaper with PoA consensus.
  2. Setting up Plasma Smart Contracts.
  3. Creating a bridge for ERC20 Swap from Ethereum test-net to ESN alpha test-net.

Alpha Version
Era Swap Network Version 1 : Specification
The Version 1 release of ESN plans to fulfill the requirements for political decentralisation and transparency in dApps of Era Swap Ecosystem using Blockchain Technology. After acquiring sufficient number of users, a version 2 construction of ESN will be feasible to enable administrative decentralization, such that the Era Swap Ecosystem will be run and managed by the Era Swap Community and will no longer require the operator to support for it's functioning.
Era Swap Network (ESN) Version 1 will be a separate EVM-compatible sidechain attached to Ethereum blockchain as it’s parent chain. ESN will achieve security through Plasma Framework along with Proof-of-Authority consensus for faster finality. The idea behind plasma framework is to avoid high transaction fees and high transaction confirmation times on Ethereum mainnet by instead doing all the ecosystem transactions off-chain and only post a small information to an Ethereum Smart Contract which would represent hash of plenty of ecosystem transactions. Also, to feature movement of Era Swap Tokens from Ethereum blockchain to ESN using cryptographic proof, reverse plasma of Ethereum on ESN will be implemented.
Also, submitting hash of each ESN blocks to ESN Plasma Smart Contract on Ethereum would force ESN to have a block time equal to or more than Ethereum’s 15 second time as well as it would be very much costly for operator to post lot of hashes to an Ethereum Smart Contract. This is why, merkle root of hashes of bunch of blocks would instead be submitted to ESN Plasma Smart Contact on Ethereum.
Actors involved in the ESN:
  1. Block Producer Nodes Lesser the number of nodes, quicker is the block propagation between block producers which can help quick ecosystem transactions. We find that 7 block producers hosted on different could hosting companies and locations reduces the risk of single point of failure of Era Swap Ecosystem and facilitates 100% uptime of dApps. Block Producer Nodes will also be responsible to post the small information to the Blockchain.
  2. Block Listener Nodes Rest of the nodes will be Block Listeners which will sync new blocks produced by the block producer nodes. Plenty of public block listener nodes would be setup in various regions around the world for shorter ping time to the users of Era Swap Ecosystem. Users would submit their Era Swap Ecosystem transactions to one of these public nodes, which would relay them to rest of the Era Swap Network eventually to the block producer nodes which would finalize a new block including the user transaction.
  3. Bunch Committers This will be an instance in the block producers which will watch for new blocks confirmed on ESN and will calculate bunch merkle roots and will submit it to ESN Plasma Smart Contract. This instance will also post hash of new Ethereum blocks to ESN (after about 10 confirmations) for moving assets between both the blockchain.
  4. Users These will be integrating with dApps which would be connected to some public ESN nodes or they can install a block listner node themselves. They can sign and send transactions to the node which they are connected to and then that node will relay their transactions to block producer nodes who would finalise a block including their transaction.

Bunch Structure

A Bunch Structure in Smart Contract will consist of the following:
• Start Block Number: It is the number of first ESN block in the bunch.
• Bunch Depth: It is Merkle Tree depth of blocks in the bunch. For e.g. If bunch depth is 3, there would be 8 blocks in the bunch and if bunch depth is 10, there would be 1024 blocks in the bunch. Bunch depth of Bunches on ESN Plasma Contract is designed to be variable. During the initial phases of ESN, it would be high, for e.g. 15, to avoid ether expenditure and would be decreased in due course of time.
• Transactions Mega Root: This value is the merkle root of all the transaction roots in the bunch. This is used by Smart Contract to verify that a transaction was sent on the chain.
• Receipts Mega Root: This value is the merkle root of all the receipt roots in the bunch. This is used to verify that the transaction execution was successful.
• Timestamp: This value is the time when the bunch proposal was submitted to the smart contract. After submission, there is a challenge period before it is finalised.

Converting ES-ERC20 to ERC-NA and BACK

On Ethereum Blockchain, the first class cryptocurrency is ETH and rest other tokens managed by smart contracts are second class. On ESN, there is an advancement to have Era Swaps as the first class cryptocurrency. This cryptocurrency will feature better user experience and to differentiate it from the classic ERC20 Era Swaps, it will be called as Era Swap Natives (ES-Na). According to the Era Swap Whitepaper, maximum 9.1 Million ES will exist which will be slowly released in circulation every month.
Era Swaps will exist as ES-ERC20 as well as in form of ES-Na. One of these can be exchanged for the other at 1:1 ratio.
Following is how user will convert ES-ERC20 to ES-Na:
  1. User will give allowance to a Deposit Smart Contract, and following that call deposit method to deposit tokens to the contract.
  2. On transaction confirmation, user will paste the transaction hash on a portal which will generate a Proof of Deposit string for the user. This string is generated by fetching all the transactions in the Ethereum Block and generating a Transaction Patricia Merkle Proof to prove that user’s transaction was indeed included in the block and the Receipts Patricia Merkle Proof to confirm that the user’s transaction was successful.
  3. Using the same portal, user will submit the generated proofs to a Smart Contract on ESN, which would release funds to user. Though, user will have to wait for the Etheruem block roots to be posted to ESN after waiting for confirmations which would take about 3 minutes. Once, it’s done user’s proofs will be accepted and will receive exact amount of ES- Na on ESN.
Following is how user will convert ES-Na to ES-ERC20:
  1. ES-Na being first class cryptocurrency, user will simply send ES-Na to a contract.
  2. User will paste the transaction hash on a portal which will generate a Proof of Deposit for the user. Again ES-Na being first class cryptocurrency, Transaction Patricia Merkle Proof is enough to prove that user’s transaction was indeed included in the block. Another thing which will be generated is the block inclusion proof in the bunch.
  3. User will have to wait for the bunch confirmation to the Plasma Smart Contract and once it’s done, user can send the proof to the Plasma Smart Contract to receive ES-ERC20.

HARD Exit

Since the blocks are produced and transactions are validated by few block producers, it exposes a possibility for fraud by controlling the block producer nodes. Because ESN is based on the Plasma Model, when failure of sidechain occurs or the chain halts, users can hard exit their funds directly from the Plasma Smart Contract on Ethereum by giving a Proof of Holdings.

HOld ES Tokens Swapping with New ES Tokens

The old ES Tokens will be valueless as those tokens will not be accepted in ESN because of NRT (New Released Tokens) and TimeAlly contracts on mainnet which is causing high gas to users, hence reducing interactions. Also, there was an event of theft of Era Swap Tokens and after consensus from majority of holders of Era Swap Tokens; it was decided to create a new contract to reverse the theft to secure the value of Era Swap Tokens of the community. Below is the strategy for swapping tokens:
TimeAlly and TSGAP: Majority of Era Swap Community have participated in TimeAlly Smart Contract in which their tokens are locked for certain period of time until which they cannot move them. Such holders will automatically receive TimeAlly staking of specific durations from the operator during initialization of ESN.
Liquid Tokens: Holders of Liquid Era Swap Tokens have to transfer the old tokens to a specified Ethereum wallet address managed by team. Following that, team will audit the token source of the holder (to eliminate exchange of stolen tokens) and send new tokens back to the wallet address.

Post-Genesis Tokens Return Program

Primary asset holding of Era Swap tokens will exist on Ethereum blockchain as an ERC20 compatible standard due to the highly decentralised nature of the blockchain. Similar to how users deposit tokens to an cryptocurrency exchange for trading and then withdraw the tokens back, users will deposit tokens to ESN Contract to enter Era Swap Ecosystem and they can withdraw it back from ESN Contract for exiting from ecosystem network. The design of the token system will be such that, it will be compatible with the future shift (modification or migration of ESN version 1) to ESN version 2, in which an entirely new blockchain setup might be required.
To manage liquidity, following genesis structure will be followed:

Holder ES-ERC20 ES-Na
Team Wallet 1.17 billion (Circulating Supply) 0
Locked in Smart Contract 7.93 billion (pending NRT releases) 9.1 billion
Though it looks like there are 9.1 * 2 = 18.2 Billion ES, but the cryptographic design secures that at any point in time at least a total of 9.1 billion ES (ES-ERC20 + ES-Na) will be locked. To unlock ES-Na on ESN, an equal amount of ES-ERC20 has to be locked on Ethereum and vice-versa.
9.1 billion ES-ERC20 will be issued by ERC20 smart contract on Ethereum Blockchain, out of which the entire circulating supply (including liquid and TimeAlly holdings) of old ES will be received to a team wallet.
TimeAlly holdings of all users will be converted to ES-Na and distributed on ESN TimeAlly Smart Contract by team to the TimeAlly holders on their same wallet address.
Liquid user holdings will be sent back to the users to the wallet address from which they send back old ES tokens (because some old ES are deposited on exchange wallet address).
ES-Na will be issued in the genesis block to an ESN Manager Smart Contract address. It will manage all the deposits and withdrawals as well as NRT releases.

Attack Vectors


Following are identified risks to be taken care of during the development of ESN:
Network Spamming: Attackers can purchase ES from the exchange and make a lot of transactions between two accounts. This is solved by involving gas fees. A setting of 200 nanoES minimum gas price will be set, which can be changed as per convenience.
DDoS: Attackers can query public nodes for computationally heavy output data. This will overload the public node with requests and genuine requests might get delayed. Block producers RPC is private, so they will continue to produce blocks. To manage user’s denial of service, the provider in dApps needs to be designed in such a way such that many public nodes will be queried simple information (let’s say latest block number) and the one which response quickly to user will be selected.
AWS is down: To minimize this issue due to cloud providers down, there will be enough nodes on multiple cloud providers to ensure at least one block producer is alive.
User deposit double spending: User deposits ES on Ethereum, gets ES-Na on ESN. Then the issue happens that there are re-org on ETH mainnet and the user’s transaction is reversed. Since ETH is not a fixed chain and as per PoW 51% attack can change the blocks. As Ethereum is now enough mature and by statistics forked blocks are at most of height 2. So it is safe to consider 15 confirmations.
Exit Game while smooth functioning: User starts a hard exit directly from Plasma Smart Contract on Ethereum, then spends his funds from the plasma chain too. To counter this, the exit game will be disabled, only when ESN halts, i.e. fails to submit block header within the time the exit game starts. This is because it is difficult to mark user’s funds as spent on ESN.
Vulnerability in Ecosystem Smart Contracts: Using traditional methods to deploy smart contracts results in a situation where if a bug is found later, it is not possible to change the code. Using a proxy construction for every ecosystem smart contract solves this problem, and changing a proxy can be given to a small committee in which 66% of votes are required, this is to prevent a malicious change of code due to compromising of a single account or similar scenario.
ChainID replay attacks: Using old and traditional ways to interact with dApps can cause loss to users, hence every dApp will be audited for the same.

Conclusion

Era Swap Network is an EVM-compatible sidechain attached to the Ethereum blockchain through Plasma Framework. This allows off-chain processing of Era Swap Ecosystem transactions and posting only the hash of the bunch to Ethereum. This greatly reduces the high network fee and confirmation time issues faced by the current Era Swap Ecosystem DApps deployed on Ethereum. Also, having a separate EVM-compatible blockchain tailored to Era Swap Ecosystem improves the user experience to a higher extent. Since by design, Plasma Framework makes the Era Swap Network as secure as the Ethereum Network, user's funds on the network would be secure as well.
We believe Era Swap Network will help scale dApps of Era Swap Ecosystem to onboard the increasing numbers of users.


Era Swap Ecosystem
Era Swap Ecosystem consist of multiple interlinked platforms which is powered by Era swap (ES) token, a decentralized utility token to be used on below utility platforms. Users can access the Platforms through Era Swap Life which is the Single Sign on (SSO) gateway to the one world of Era Swap Ecosystem.
Era Swap Life: https://eraswap.life/
TimeAlly DApp -> Decentralized Token Vesting: https://www.timeally.io/
BetDeEx -> Decentralized prediction platform: https://www.betdeex.com/
Swappers Wall -> Social Time Ledgerise: https://timeswappers.com/swapperswall
TimeSwappers -> Global P2P marketplace: https://timeswappers.com/
BuzCafe -> Connects local P2P outlets: https://buzcafe.com/
DaySwappers -> Unique Affiliate Program: https://dayswappers.com/
Era Swap Academy -> E-mart for skill development: https://eraswap.academy/
Value of Farmers (VOF) -> Farming ecosystem: http://valueoffarmers.org/ coming soon
ComputeEx -> P2P lending and borrowing: https://computeex.net/ coming soon
DateSwappers -> Next gen dating: coming soon
Smart Contract address

Era Swap Token (ES)
https://etherscan.io/address/0xef1344bdf80bef3ff4428d8becec3eea4a2cf574#code

Newly Released Token (NRT) https://etherscan.io/address/0x20ee679d73559e4c4b5e3b3042b61be723828d6c#code

TimeAlly DApp
https://etherscan.io/address/0x5630ee5f247bd6b61991fbb2f117bbeb45990876#code

BetDeEx DApp https://etherscan.io/address/0x42225682113E6Ed3616B36B4A72BbaE376041D7c#code
TSGAP DApp
https://etherscan.io/address/0xbad9af4db5401b7d5e8177a18c1d69c35fc03fd3#code

White Paper
Era Swap Whitepaper: https://eraswaptoken.io/pdf/eraswap_whitepaper.pdf
Era Swap Light Paper: https://eraswaptoken.io/pdf/eraswap_lightpaper.pdf

Howey Test
Howey Test: https://eraswaptoken.io/era-swap-howey-test-letter-august7-2018.php

Era Swap SOCIAL LINKS
Telegram: https://t.me/eraswap
Twitter: https://twitter.com/eraswaptec
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/eraswap/
Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/eraswap/
BitcoinTalk: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5025979.msg45502457
Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCGCP4f5DF1W6sbCjS6y3T1g
LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/eraswap/
Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/useEraSwap
Medium: https://medium.com/@eraswap
Tumblr: https://eraswap.tumblr.com/
Mix: https://mix.com/eraswap
Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/eraswapt/
GitHub: https://github.com/KMPARDS/EraSwapSmartContracts
submitted by EraSwap to u/EraSwap [link] [comments]

Which type of curren(t) do you want to see(cy)? A analysis of the intention behind bitcoin(s). [Part 2]

Part 1
It's been a bit of time since the first post during which I believe things have crystallised further as to the intentions of the three primary bitcoin variants. I was going to go on a long winded journey to try to weave together the various bits and pieces to let the reader discern from themselves but there's simply too much material that needs to be covered and the effort that it would require is not something that I can invest right now.
Firstly we must define what bitcoin actually is. Many people think of bitcoin as a unit of a digital currency like a dollar in your bank but without a physical substrate. That's kind of correct as a way to explain its likeness to something many people are familiar with but instead it's a bit more nuanced than that. If we look at a wallet from 2011 that has never moved any coins, we can find that there are now multiple "bitcoins" on multiple different blockchains. This post will discuss the main three variants which are Bitcoin Core, Bitcoin Cash and Bitcoin SV. In this respect many people are still hotly debating which is the REAL bitcoin variant and which bitcoins you want to be "investing" in.
The genius of bitcoin was not in defining a class of non physical objects to send around. Why bitcoin was so revolutionary is that it combined cryptography, economics, law, computer science, networking, mathematics, etc. and created a protocol which was basically a rule set to be followed which creates a game of incentives that provides security to a p2p network to prevent double spends. The game theory is extremely important to understand. When a transaction is made on the bitcoin network your wallet essentially generates a string of characters which includes your public cryptographic key, a signature which is derived from the private key:pub key pair, the hash of the previous block and an address derived from a public key of the person you want to send the coins to. Because each transaction includes the hash of the previous block (a hash is something that will always generate the same 64 character string result from EXACTLY the same data inputs) the blocks are literally chained together. Bitcoin and the blockchain are thus defined in the technical white paper which accompanied the release client as a chain of digital signatures.
The miners validate transactions on the network and compete with one another to detect double spends on the network. If a miner finds the correct solution to the current block (and in doing so is the one who writes all the transactions that have elapsed since the last block was found, in to the next block) says that a transaction is confirmed but then the rest of the network disagree that the transactions occurred in the order that this miner says (for double spends), then the network will reject the version of the blockchain that that miner is working on. In that respect the miners are incentivised to check each other's work and ensure the majority are working on the correct version of the chain. The miners are thus bound by the game theoretical design of NAKAMOTO CONSENSUS and the ENFORCES of the rule set. It is important to note the term ENFORCER rather than RULE CREATOR as this is defined in the white paper which is a document copyrighted by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2009.

Now if we look at the three primary variants of bitcoin understanding these important defining characteristics of what the bitcoin protocol actually is we can make an argument that the variants that changed some of these defining attributes as no longer being bitcoin rather than trying to argue based off market appraisal which is essentially defining bitcoin as a social media consensus rather than a set in stone rule set.
BITCOIN CORE: On first examination Bitcoin Core appears to be the incumbent bitcoin that many are being lead to believe is the "true" bitcoin and the others are knock off scams. The outward stated rationale behind the bitcoin core variant is that computational resources, bandwidth, storage are scarce and that before increasing the size of each block to allow for more transactions we should be increasing the efficiency with which the data being fed in to a block is stored. In order to achieve this one of the first suggested implementations was a process known as SegWit (segregating the witness data). This means that when you construct a bitcoin transaction, in the header of the tx, instead of the inputs being public key and a signature + Hash + address(to), the signature data is moved outside of header as this can save space within the header and allow more transactions to fill the block. More of the history of the proposal can be read about here (bearing in mind that article is published by the bitcoinmagazine which is founded by ethereum devs Vitalik and Mihai and can't necessarily be trusted to give an unbiased record of events). The idea of a segwit like solution was proposed as early as 2012 by the likes of Greg Maxwell and Luke Dash Jnr and Peter Todd in an apparent effort to "FIX" transaction malleability and enable side chains. Those familiar with the motto "problem reaction solution" may understand here that the problem being presented may not always be an authentic problem and it may actually just be necessary preparation for implementing a desired solution.
The real technical arguments as to whether moving signature data outside of the transaction in the header actually invalidates the definition of bitcoin as being a chain of digital signatures is outside my realm of expertise but instead we can examine the character of the individuals and groups involved in endorsing such a solution. Greg Maxwell is a hard to know individual that has been involved with bitcoin since its very early days but in some articles he portrays himself as portrays himself as one of bitcoins harshest earliest critics. Before that he worked with Mozilla and Wikipedia and a few mentions of him can be found on some old linux sites or such. He has no entry on wikipedia other than a non hyperlinked listing as the CTO of Blockstream. Blockstream was a company founded by Greg Maxwell and Adam Back, but in business registration documents only Adam Back is listed as the business contact but registered by James Murdock as the agent. They received funding from a number of VC firms but also Joi Ito and Reid Hoffman and there are suggestions that MIT media labs and the Digital Currency Initiative. For those paying attention Joi Ito and Reid Hoffman have links to Jeffrey Epstein and his offsider Ghislaine Maxwell.

Ghislaine is the daughter of publishing tycoon and fraudster Robert Maxwell (Ján Ludvík Hyman Binyamin Hoch, a yiddish orthodox czech). It is emerging that the Maxwells are implicated with Mossad and involved in many different psyops throughout the last decades. Greg Maxwell is verified as nullc but a few months ago was outed using sock puppets as another reddit user contrarian__ who also admits to being Jewish in one of his comments as the former. Greg has had a colourful history with his roll as a bitcoin core developer successfully ousting two of the developers put there by Satoshi (Gavin Andreson and Mike Hearn) and being referred to by Andreson as a toxic troll with counterpart Samon Mow. At this point rather than crafting the narrative around Greg, I will provide a few links for the reader to assess on their own time:
  1. https://coinspice.io/news/btc-dev-gregory-maxwell-fake-social-media-account-accusations-nonsense/
  2. https://www.trustnodes.com/2017/06/06/making-gregory-maxwell-bitcoin-core-committer-huge-mistake-says-gavin-andresen
  3. https://www.ccn.com/gavin-andresen-samson-mow-and-greg-maxwell-toxic-trolls//
  4. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/17/business/dealbook/the-bitcoin-believer-who-gave-up.html
  5. https://www.coindesk.com/mozilla-accepting-bitcoin-donations
  6. https://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-talk/computing/networks/the-bitcoin-for-is-a-coup
  7. https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/68pusp/gavin_andresen_on_twitter_im_looking_for_beta/dh1cmfl/
  8. https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/d14qee/can_someone_post_the_details_of_the_relationships/?ref=tokendaily
  9. https://www.coindesk.com/court-docs-detail-sexual-misconduct-allegations-against-bitcoin-consultant-peter-todd
  10. https://coinspice.io/news/billionaire-jeffrey-epstein-btc-maximalist-bitcoin-is-a-store-of-value-not-a-currency/
  11. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7579851/More-300-paedophiles-arrested-worldwide-massive-child-abuse-website-taken-down.html
  12. https://news.bitcoin.com/risks-segregated-witness-opening-door-mining-cartels-undermine-bitcoin-network/
  13. https://micky.com.au/craig-wrights-crackpot-bitcoin-theory-covered-by-uks-financial-times/
  14. https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/74se80/wikipedia_admins_gregory_maxwell_of_blockstream/

Now I could just go on dumping more and more articles but that doesn't really weave it all together. Essentially it is very well possible that the 'FIX' of bitcoin proposed with SegWit was done by those who are moral reprobates who have been rubbing shoulders money launderers and human traffickers. Gregory Maxwell was removed from wikipedia, worked with Mozilla who donated a quarter of a million to MIT media labs and had relationship with Joi Ito, the company he founded received funding from people associated with Epstein who have demonstrated their poor character and dishonesty and attempted to wage toxic wars against those early bitcoin developers who wished to scale bitcoin as per the white paper and without changing consensus rules or signature structures.
The argument that BTC is bitcoin because the exchanges and the market have chosen is not necessarily a logical supposition when the vast majority of the money that has flown in to inflate the price of BTC comes from a cryptographic USD token that was created by Brock Pierce (Might Ducks child stahollywood pedo scandal Digital Entertainment Network) who attended Jeffrey Epstein's Island for conferences. The group Tether who issues the USDT has been getting nailed by the New York Attorney General office with claims of $1.4 trillion in damages from their dodgey practices. Brock Pierce has since distanced himself from Tether but Blockstream still works closely with them and they are now exploring issuing tether on the ethereum network. Tether lost it's US banking partner in early 2017 before the monstrous run up for bitcoin prices. Afterwards they alleged they had full reserves of USD however, they were never audited and were printing hundreds of millions of dollars of tether each week during peak mania which was used to buy bitcoin (which was then used as collateral to issue more tether against the bitcoin they bought at a value they inflated). Around $30m in USDT is crossing between China to Russia daily and when some of the groups also related to USDT/Tether were raided they found them in possession of hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of counterfeit physical US bills.
Because of all this it then becomes important to reassess the arguments that were made for the implementation of pegged sidechains, segregated witnesses and other second layer solutions. If preventing the bitcoin blockchain from bloating was the main argument for second layer solutions, what was the plan for scaling the data related to the records of transactions that occur on the second layer. You will then need to rely on less robust ways of securing the second layer than Proof Of Work but still have the same amount of data to contend with, unless there was plans all along for second layer solutions to enable records to be deleted /pruned to facilitate money laundering and violation of laws put in place to prevent banking secrecy etc.
There's much more to it as well and I encourage anyone interested to go digging on their own in to this murky cesspit. Although I know very well what sort of stuff Epstein has been up to I have been out of the loop and haven't familiarised myself with everyone involved in his network that is coming to light.
Stay tuned for part 3 which will be an analysis of the shit show that is the Bitcoin Cash variant...
submitted by whipnil to C_S_T [link] [comments]

Will I earn money by mining? - An answer to all newcomers

When people start their adventure with Bitcoin, they often go through a small gold fever with the concept of mining (I would know, that's how I started ;) ). Here is a small guide to answer your eternal question "will I make money with it?":
First of all, lets talk about hardware (click on the link for a long and useful list). You won't make money mining bitcoins unless you either have a really high-end GPU from ATI, an FPGA or an ASIC. That's the short answer. Having a decent CPU can be used for Litecoin mining, which can be a small income in itself, but we are here to talk about Bitcoin.
To see whether you will earn any money, you need to input a few pieces of data into a special calculator:
And then there are two magical variables that will either make it all work out, or be doomed for failure: * difficulty - it is automatically filled in by the calculator, but for long-term mining (more than a few weeks), you want to be a pessimist. Multiply the value by 10 for predictions over a few months or 100 for a year or two (it will rise steeply soon) * bitcoin price - also filled by the calculator - it might go up or down in the future, affecting your bottom line. It will probably increase in the long run, but lets be pessimistic and lower that to $10-$20 to make sure we are earning money no matter what
Having all your hard data and your guesses on the last two variables, you put it all into the mining calculator and see what you get. You will get your earnings in BTC and dollars, as well as summary of your costs and when you will brake even, and what will your net income be over your investment period.
Most likely you won't be earning money with Bitcoin mining, and that's okay - mining has become a very specialised process. If you want to invest money into new ASICs, you might be able to turn a tidy profit.
TLDR: Use this to check everything. ASICs may earn you money, GPUs won't anymore.
submitted by ThePiachu to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

The Strange Birth & History of Monero, Part II: BitMonero

--YOU CAN READ THIS IN SPANISH HERE--
When i first knew about Monero i was hungry of information, and when i found the americanpegasus post about "The Strange Birth & History of Monero" i loved it. I looked for a second part for a while but as there was no trace of it i did my own investigations. Now i've decided it could be a good idea to paste the results here with the same format as americanpegasus did, to help new users looking for info about the "strange birth" of Monero.
Bitmonero - a new coin based on CryptoNote technology
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.0
Notable comments in this thread:
-1: " Important: this is not a Bytecoin relaunch or not a Bytecoin replacement but a Bytecoin fork. Bytecoin has its own long history, community and stakeholders we don't know much about. I respect them and their decisions even if I don't understand them now. An intention to relaunch coin is always harmfull for everybody involved. Fork is a right way to contribute to community in case you don't agree with decisions already made. - Why did I make fork? - Because there is a number of technical and marketing issues I wanted to do differently. And also because I like ideas and technology and I want it to succeed. I did an announcement ASAP while a lot of details aren't still defined because the earlier it is announced the more people will be able to join. Details will appear as soon as they will be defined and decided.
Here are details that are already defined and I don't plan to change this:
  1. New coin will use Bytecoin(BCN)/CryptoNote code base.
  2. New coin is started from scratch (i.e. from genesis block).
  3. Emission schedule has a flatter curve (close to Bitcoin's original curve).
  4. Bitmonero - BMR (monero /esperanto/ = coin)
  5. Block target = 60 seconds"
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6146656#msg6146656) [thankful_for_today makes public BitMonero, and he stablishes some features he is not willing to change]
-11: “I honestly don't see the advantage of bringing the block time down to 1 minute. You're ultimately looking at increasing orphan blocks and decreasing hash power, and all you get is a feature that looks great on paper but has little purpose. I wouldn't mess with it. Apparently the BCN devs wanted 5-10 minute block times but settled on 2 minutes after lengthy disputes. Their decision is explained in more detail here: https://forum.cryptonote.org/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=20”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6151158#msg6151158) [Johnny Mnemonic tries to persuade TFT into bigger block target]
-15: ” Block target isn't only about transaction speed.
It also influences the chance to get block in solomining […] Solo mining gives decentralization.
[…]
From another point of view faster block are smaller (less transactions per block). Small blocks are easier to propagate through network.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6160389#msg6160389) [TFT justifies his position]
-16: “Any coin that is successful wont be feasible to solo mine eventually.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6161218#msg6161218) [smooth supports Johnny Mnemonic proposal of bigger blog target]
-25: “There are very good reasons for having a fork instead. With BCN we have a coin that refused to show itself for 2 years and has been 80% mined. Why would the markets accept that? Crypto distribution is absurdly bad […] But this [BCN] is taking it to a whole new level. […]Don't underestimate "instamining" stigma - it annihilated Quark and continues to plague DRK
[…]
A fresh start pre-announced start gives a known market history, a fairer and longer distribution, and active development with feedback.
That said, I'm disappointed in what this thread turned out to be. We should've had discussion on the name and the parameters and other things and yet thankful_for_today is nowhere to be seen 4 days from the supposed launch.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6239589#msg6239589) [eizh justifies the fork and shows the first public complains on TFT activity/communication: he’s been 100% quiet for 5 days]
-37: “Looks like everything is ready. Bitmonero will be launched in 24 hours => Launch time 17 April, 22:00”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6256385#msg6256385) [TFT announces the BitMonero launch time, it is his first post in 6 days]
-53: “Bitmonero = bit + monero monero = mono (money) + ero (bit) = coin (esperanto language)
OS X build is a problem for me. I don't have a mac available for building and testing. In case somebody can help with building for Mac or for Windows, please PM me.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6272312#msg6272312) [TFT, 1h prior to launch, announces there are not neither Mac nor Windows clients built]
-54: “Wait, you won't have Windows available? A launch is basically a premine without a Windows client available. BCN has one, so what's the issue?”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6272532#msg6272532)
-56: “I will wait until somebody will help with windows and mac compilation.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6272768#msg6272768) [TFT delays BitMonero launch]
-58: “Trying to cross compile”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6272876#msg6272876) [tacotime]
-70: “I really like the idea of forking BCN but only if it is done properly!”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6274881#msg6274881) [x0rcist, as others do, thinks the launch is being rushed]
-71: “I think the most important change is the emissions schedule, but yes, this is rushed. The name alone may doom it.
This coin had no discussion behind it. It was pointed that the block time is too fast beyond the solo mining phase. It was kept without offering reasons. It was pointed out that the name should be voted on. Nope, and a bizarre name resulted.
Perhaps the biggest reason to fork is that it was mined for 2 years without making itself available to the other 99.9999999% of the internet on the clearweb. Yet, we wouldn't be much better if we did a launch without a GUI client and a website. Instead, we were 1 hour from launch without a Windows client, which is actually a step backwards from BCN itself (they released an easy-to-use package with a batch file for nontechnical users). We need (1) an accessible release with (2) proper marketing (including a different name). Right now this fork doesn't have much of a reason to exist, IMO. There's no reason to release it now and work on these things later, either. All we'd be doing is unfairly mining it ahead of everyone else”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6275044#msg6275044) [eizh points out that TFT blatantly ignored the community suggestions and also thinks all this is being rushed]
-77: “I've updated an OP: sources are on git, binaries are on MEGA.
Height is 5, difficulty is 27908. This is a good start.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6279564#msg6279564) [TFT follows through his plans w/o much interaction]
-87: “not happy with the rush job and the 12 decimal numbers (Huh) but the blockchain already started so;
i registered the channel #bitmonero on freenode, this is easier for support questions so come join!
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6280702#msg6280702)
-97: “I'm working on this [merged mining with Bytecoin] together with a friend of mine. Merged mining will be released next week.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6281655#msg6281655) [TFT announces a feature that would confront him with the whole community in the near future]
-133: “The only community discussion this coin saw (regarding the reduced block time) the developer ignored outright. It was made pretty clear that moving to 60 second blocks was not the best approach and had zero long-term benefit.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6286990#msg6286990)
-159: “There is a lot of issues with GUI to talk about. I propose to meet in Irc at 20GMT today. Is this time good?
I have some budget we can spend to motivate GUI developers: 1.000.000 BCN and 400 BMR.
Anybody can contribute some coins also for this purpose.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6295475#msg6295475) [TFT shows himself collaborative “for first time”]
-175: “The current situation is that someone disabled mempool and forked the chain so that the invalid tx doesn't get in the way. But the difficulty hasn't changed much so blocks are being found much more rarely than 1 minute. So you can mine, it's just very slow. A few people are on the freenode channel trying to solve the cause of the problem.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6300059#msg6300059) [eizh points the first “TFT-induced” bug]
-177: “Hello!
It's all right
I have a fix and I will deploy it now. Hardfork is not required. The problem is in mining code not in protocol rules.
10 minutes, please”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6300328#msg6300328) [TFT says he already has a fix ready]
-204: “Auctioning 100 BMR minimum bid 0.001 btc https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=577296”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6303161#msg6303161) [smooth tries to sell for first time a BMR token]
-205: ”This topic's first post should also be more informative.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6303294#msg6303294) [Once again, eizh points out a TFT-related problem.]
-214: “a botnet or cloud has come onto the network starting at block 2633, difficulty is now almost 100k!”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6304960#msg6304960) [tacotime notices a difficulty increase]
-215: “We had our first public trade [...] 100 BMR = 0.005 BTC https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=577296.0”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6304971#msg6304971) [smooth announces that the first BMR sale has taken place]
-275: “New BCN clone: "HoneyPenny" (yes, really)
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=577267.0
[…]
Props to them for actually putting anonymous and unlinkable in the thread title. A casual browser still would have no idea what BMR actually does.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6327901#msg6327901) [eizh shares the announcement of a third cryptocurrency based on CryptoNote so far by then, this coin will be re-named Boolberry (BBR) in the future. He also takes advantage of this launch to point again the lack of communication and cooperation of TFT, specially with the OP]
-300: “Difficulty still skyrocketing. At this rate BMR may pass BCN within the next day or so.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6331990#msg6331990) [BitMonero hashrate is growing so fast it might outpace BCN soon]
-317: “Hi! I have two news (good one and bad one):
[bad] I haven't read previous messages yet
[good] here is a logo contest: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=580155.0”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6338544#msg6338544) [TFT shows up again against community expectations. He is not taking part at all in the community debates]
-329: (https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6349635#msg6349635) [eizh is still pressing TFT to change the OP without luck]
-341: “CryptoNote has relatively good privacy for transmitting values throughout the network (ring signatures, stealth addressing) while not compromising things like being able to detect inflation over the network. In ZeroCash, you can only prove that coins have been generated, not the amount that was generated, so any bugs within the system will go undetected. This would have been a huge problem for Bitcoin, as there was a well known bug involving integer overflow that allowed you to generate 2 billion coins.
Note that zero knowledge proofs are used in the ring signature method by ByteCoin/BitMonero, too (see section 4.4 of the whitepaper). Obfuscation of signature linkability is much more advanced than that used in DarkCoin, and you need to read the whitepaper to truly appreciate it.
CryptoNote also has support for multisig built in, despite the much more limited scripting language as compared to Bitcoin (see Section 6.3 of the CryptoNote 2.0 whitepaper). This is important for the implementation of decentralized marketplaces like DarkMarket that use multisig to enable the blockchain to be an escrow.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6356308#msg6356308) [tacotime justifies the CryptoNote improvements to DarkCoin and ZeroCash]
-357: “I can't help with anything else but I can donate 2000 BMR towards various projects relating to the coin. I hope it helps.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6359986#msg6359986) [NoodleDoodle shows up for first time in the BMR topic]
-363: “Discussion of chain future going on presently in IRC”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6362144#msg6362144) [tacotime posts probably the most important message in the whole thread: the community is taking decisions on BMR future w/o TFT]
-365: “So far:
New OP: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=582080.0”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6362485#msg6362485) [David Latapie summarizes the rebels have agreed on]
MRO thread is live and emission curve issue (inflation is 2 times higher than it should be) is made public
-374: “Voting about emission curve change added: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=585480”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6406102#msg6406102) [TFT tries to satisfy a community that is letting him alone]
-380: “Same fork, same dev as the original author. The community changed the name, but the original author didn't close the thread.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6414656#msg6414656) [tacotime makes clear that, so far (27th, April 2014), BMR and MRO are the same coin with the same dev team]
-401: ”Transaction extra parse issue
Fixing as we speak
Please use main thread https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.0”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6475592#msg6475592) [tacotime announces a bug and that its fix is in progress. Besides he asks to use the “main” thread]
-402: “Takotime, there are two issues:
  1. Main thread is here.
  2. Bug is fixed.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6476068#msg6476068) [TFT breaks out (30th, Apr 2014): he does not recognize community changes]
-403: “You did not really fix it. You just ignore every error in the code with your 'update' We should wait for tacotime to confirm that the issue is fixed. PS: We should all use the main thread: Please use main thread: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.0”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6476331#msg6476331) [It is not a secret anymore: TFT and the “rebel” community do not have a good relationship]
-480: (https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg7384159#msg7384159) [Months back (June 2014) and after a few months of inactivity, TFT comes back and makes public that he will keep working in BitMonero]
-487: “Actually, several attempts were made behind the scenes and TFT's continued demand was full admin rights over the Monero repo. Now, what could that be useful for when tacotime already offered push/pull rights? It's certainly not about contributing code - push/pull offers the right to do that without interference or permission. This is basically a repeating pattern of shutting out everyone else, which is ironically what caused him to lose the project in the first place. The tone of that post makes his level of maturity obvious for everyone to see.
I might also point out that his contribution to date consists of 10 or so lines of code changed in a header file (to clone BCN). Then a bug 'fix' that actually allowed the chain to be attacked later (now fixed). This was followed by his disappearance. Disproportionate visibility indeed.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg7387658#msg7387658) [eizh makes clear they tried to make a deal with TFT]
This is basically everything worth reading in this thread. I’ve extracted the most important posts in the whole thread, from first to last page. TFT, Bitmonero and its community are key in the birth of Monero.
These are the main conclussions:
  • BitMonero has a reason to exist. But to justify its existence it doesn’t need just reasons, but also a dedicated team and a participative community.
  • Thankful_for_today definitely it is not a sociable leader. His posts are scarce, every few days, and he can’t keep up to date with a nascent community really dedicated
  • TFT is desperate to launch BitMonero, probably to be the first Bytecoin fork and have the “first mover” advantage. He is even about to launch without Windows client.
  • Due to the rush, TFT has induced a few bugs. The most important one the emission curve.
  • Bytecoin starts to have some traction, and TFT keeps ignoring community suggestions, so the community has now doubts of BMR future. NoodleDoodle, eizh, David Latapie, Tacotime and smooth among others lead a split, firstly just to change the name and re-publishing the announcement thread, but they will eventually hard-split.
I have already ready a summary of the MRO topic that has a short life of not even 2 days but still has A LOT of interesting info about how the team is being built and what are their opinions on several topics. May i remember you that by then Monero had 1 minute blocks and an emission curve that would have created 86% of the tokens in 2 years. In the next post (will only make it public if i see there's any interest) we will see how and when the team adressed the problems with the emission curve, and when was the miner optimized to take away the probably voluntary obfuscations the code had.
submitted by el_hispano to Monero [link] [comments]

Nice Article About How HPB Perform Vs EOS (and so ETH)

HPB: Unique Blockchain Infrastructure
Now most public chains will mention that the problem of tps development is the problem of the blockchain. This is also because the traditional blockchain has the problem of poor performance. In order to reach consensus, the efficiency is sacrificed. But if you want to build an ecosystem of countless DAPPs based on the public chain, there is no guarantee of performance that is almost impossible.
The dream of building a DAPP ecosystem is that Bitcoin has not been completed and it is not necessary to complete it. Bitcoin is only a digital currency and it has initially fulfilled its historical mission. It has become a value storer, and it has opened the world of the blockchain. .
Ethereum started with the goal of building a world-wide computer that provided the infrastructure for building decentralized applications, but so far it has only succeeded in the crowdfunding field. Due to performance, cost, scalability, and other issues, it is not yet possible to become a DAPP infrastructure. By the end of 2017, a simple encrypted cat game would have caused Ethereum to jam. Ethereum tried to get rid of the predicament through techniques such as fragmentation, Plasma, and PoS consensus.
Newcomers, such as EOS, are highlighting their high performance, emphasizing the possibility of reaching mega-level tps. Then, in the future, an infrastructure is needed to build a prosperous DAPP ecosystem on this decentralized infrastructure to meet the user or business needs of different scenarios.
What kind of program is a better choice? This is what blue fox has been paying attention to. Blue Fox focuses on an HPB blockchain project that uses a completely different search path than other public chains or infrastructure. This path is worth paying attention to all the buddies who pay attention to the blockchain.
This path is a combination of hardware and software. It is more demanding and the practice is more difficult. However, if it is truly grounded, it may be a good path.
HPB to become a high-performance blockchain infrastructure
Whether HPB or EOS have the same goals, they must provide a high-performance infrastructure for the decentralized ecosystem. why? Mainly from the blockchain to the mainstream business scene point of view. The current blockchain has achieved some success in security and decentralization, but there are natural constraints in terms of efficiency. This hinders its application scenario to the mainstream.
This is also a direction that Blockchain 3.0 has been exploring. Through higher performance, lower costs, and better scalability to meet the needs of more decentralized application scenarios.
The current bitcoin and Ethereum's throughput are both worrying. Bitcoin supports about 7 transactions per second on average, and Ethereum has about 15 throughputs. If you make the block bigger, you can also increase the throughput, but it will cause the problem of block bloat. Last year, an encrypted cat game made everyone see the blockchain congestion problem. From a performance point of view, it takes a long time for blockchains to reach the mainstream.
In addition to the lack of tps performance, the transaction cost of the blockchain is high. Both ordinary users and developers cannot afford gas costs that are too high. For example, before Ethereum's crypto-games became hot, there were even transaction fees compared to encrypted cats. It is also expensive.
The HPB and EOS goals are similar, but their paths are completely different. HPB uses a combination of hardware and software, has its own dedicated chip hardware server, which makes it theoretically have higher performance.
HPB is also trying to create an operating system architecture that can build applications. This architecture includes accounts, identity and authorization management, policy management, databases, asynchronous communications, program scheduling on CPUs, FPGAs, or clusters, and hardware accelerated technology. Realizes low delay and high concurrency and realizes mega-level tps to meet the needs of commercial scenarios.
It is different from EOS. Its architecture, in addition to its software architecture and its hardware architecture, is a combination of hardware and software blockchain architecture that combines high-performance computing and cloud computing concepts. The hardware system includes a distributed core node composed of high performance computing hardware, a general communication network, and a cloud terminal supported by high performance computing hardware.
The core node supports a standard blockchain software architecture, including consensus algorithms, network communications, and task processing. It also introduces a hardware acceleration engine. It works with software to achieve high-performance tps through BOE technology (Blockchain Offload Engine) and consensus algorithm acceleration, data compression, and data encryption.
BOE makes HPB unique
In the HPB's overall architecture, compared with other blockchain infrastructures, there are obvious differences. One of the important points is its BOE technology.
BOE mentioned above, is the blockchain offload engine. The BOE engine includes BOE hardware, BOE firmware, and matching software systems. It is a heterogeneous processing system that achieves high performance and high concurrent computational acceleration by combining CPU serial capabilities with the parallel processing capabilities of the FPGA/ASIC chip.
In the process of parsing TCP packets and UDP packets, the BOE module does not need to participate in the CPU, which can save CPU resources. The BOE module performs integrity checking, signature verification, and account balance verification on received messages such as transactions and blocks, performs fragment processing on large data to be transmitted, and encapsulates the fragments to ensure the integrity of received data. At the same time, statistics work will be performed according to the received traffic of the TCP connection, and corresponding incentives will be provided according to the system contribution.
BOE has played its own role in signature verification speed, encryption channel security, data transmission speed, network performance, and concurrent connections.
The BOE acceleration engine embeds the ECDSA module. The main purpose of this module is to improve the speed of signature verification. ECDSA is also an elliptic curve digital signature algorithm. Although it is a mature algorithm that is widely used at present, the pure software method can only be performed thousands of times per second and cannot meet the high performance requirements. So the combination of BOE and ECDSA is a good attempt.
In the process of data transmission between different nodes, BOE needs to establish an encrypted channel. In this process, it uses a hardware random number generator to implement the security of the encrypted channel, because the seed of the random number of the key exchange becomes unpredictable.
The BOE acceleration engine also uses block data fragmentation broadcasting technology. Block fragmentation includes a complete block header, which facilitates the broadcast of newly generated blocks to all nodes. With block data fragmentation, network data can be quickly transmitted between different nodes.
The BOE technology can perform traffic statistics of node connections based on hardware, and can calculate network bandwidth data provided by different nodes. Only providing network bandwidth to the system will have the opportunity to become a high contribution value node. In this way, incentives for the contribution of the nodes are provided.
In terms of concurrency, BOE is expected to maintain more than 10,000 TCP sessions and handle 10,000 concurrent sessions through an acceleration engine. BOE's dedicated parallel processing hardware replaces the traditional software serial processing functions such as transaction data broadcasting, unverified blockwide network broadcasting, transaction confirmation broadcasting, and the like.
According to HPB estimates, through the BOE acceleration engine, the session response speed and the number of session maintenance can reach more than 100 times the processing power of the common computing platform node. If the actual environment can be achieved, it is a very significant performance improvement.
Consensus algorithm for internal and external bi-level elections
HPB not only significantly improves performance through BOE, but also adopts a dual-layer internal and external voting mechanism in consensus algorithms. It attempts to achieve more efficient consensus efficiency on the premise of ensuring security and privacy.
Outer election refers to the selection of high-contribution-value node members from many candidate nodes, and the election will use node contribution value evaluation indicators. Inner-layer election refers to an anonymous voting mechanism based on a hash queue. When a block is generated, it calculates which high-contribution value node preferentially generates a block. Nodes with high priority have the right to generate blocks preferentially.
So, how to choose high contribution value node? Here is the first indicator to evaluate the contribution value. The indicators include whether a BOE acceleration engine is configured, network bandwidth contribution (data throughput over a fixed period of time), reputation, and total node token holding time. Among them, the creditworthiness of the node is obtained through the analysis of participating transactions and data analysis such as packaged blocks and transaction forwarding. The total holding time of the node token can be obtained by real-time statistics on the account information.
The outer election adopts an adaptive and consistent election plan. That is, by maintaining the consistency of “books” to ensure the consistency of outer elections, this can reduce network synchronization, and can also use the data of each node on the chain. The first is to put the above-mentioned four evaluation indicators into the block. By keeping the account books consistent, you can calculate the current ranking of all the participating candidate nodes. The higher-ranking high-contribution value nodes will become the official high contribution in the next round. Value node.
With the formal high contribution value node, the goal of the inner election is to find the high contribution value node corresponding to each block as soon as possible. The entire process is divided into three phases: nominations, statistics, and calculations. These three phases combine security, privacy, and performance.
The first is the nomination. At the beginning of the voting period, the BOE acceleration engine generates a random Commit. The high contribution value node submits its Commit, and the Commit synchronizes with the chain generated by the high-performance node. After the voting period is over, the Commit in the blockchain is started and the ticket pool is created. The last is the calculation. The calculation is mainly based on the weight algorithm to calculate the node's generation priority in the block. Generate the highest-priority high-contribution value node and obtain the block package right.
Other nodes can verify the random number and address signature according to the principle of verifiable random function, which not only guarantees security, but also guarantees the unpredictability and privacy of high contribution value nodes.
In general, HPB's consensus algorithm combines security, privacy, and speed through a combination of hardware and software. Using the BOE acceleration engine to generate random numbers, contribution value evaluation indicators, coherence ledgers, anonymous voting mechanisms, weight algorithms, signature verification, etc., privacy, reliability, security, and high efficiency are achieved.
Universal virtual machine design: support for different blockchains
The HPB virtual machine adopts a plug-in design mechanism and can support multiple virtual machines. It can implement the combination of the underlying virtual machine and upper level program language translation and support, and support the basic application of virtual machines. In addition, the external interface of the virtual machine can be realized through customized API operations, which can interact with the account data and external data.
The advantage of this mechanism is that it can realize the high performance of native code execution when the smart contract runs, and it can also implement the common virtual machine mechanism supporting different blockchains. For example, it can support Ethereum virtual machine EVM. The smart contract on EVM can also be used on HPB.
Neo's virtual machine NeoVM can also be used on HPB. When high-performance scenarios are needed, users of both EVM and NeoVM need only a few adaptations to interact with other HPB applications.
The HPB smart contract has also made some improvements, such as the management of the life cycle, auditing and forming a common template. No progress can realize the full lifecycle management of smart contracts, such as the complete and controllable process management and integration rights management mechanism for intelligent contract submission, deployment, use, and logout.
In smart contract auditing, HPB conducts a protective audit that combines automated tool auditing with professional code design. In terms of templates, HPB gradually formed a generic smart contract template to support the flexible configuration of various common business scenarios.
Incentives for a positive cycle of token economy
When the high-contribution value node generates a block, it will receive a token reward from the system. From the design of the HPB, the system will issue a token of no more than 6% per year, and the additional token will be proportional to the total number of high-contribution nodes and candidate nodes.
In order to obtain the token reward from the system, it must first become a high contribution value node, and only the high contribution value node has the right to generate a block.
In order to obtain the right to generate a block, it is necessary to contribute, including holding a certain number of HPB tokens, having a BOE hardware acceleration engine, and contributing network bandwidth to the system.
From its mechanism, we can see that HPB's token economic system design is considered from the formation of a positive incentive system. It maintains the overall HPB system by holding the HPB token, having a BOE hardware acceleration engine, and contributing network bandwidth to the system. safe operation.
HPB landing: supports a variety of high-frequency scenes
In essence, HPB is a high-performance blockchain platform and is an infrastructure where various blockchain applications can be explored. Including blockchain finance, blockchain games, blockchain entertainment, blockchain big data, blockchain anti-fake tracking, blockchain energy and many other fields.
In terms of finance, decentralized lending, decentralized asset management, etc. can all be built on the HPB platform to meet high-frequency lending and transaction scenarios.
In terms of games, although all game operations are not practical, the up-chaining and trading of assets such as game props are important scenes. Once the realization of the game product chain, you can ensure that the game assets are transparent, unique, can not be tampered with, never disappeared, etc., providing great convenience for the transaction between the game products.
Compared with traditional centralized service providers, there are many advantages. For example, there is no need to worry about the loss, confiscation, or change of virtual game products. The transaction process is also simple and convenient. Since HPB has a high-performance blockchain, it is expected to support millions of concurrents, and many high-frequency scenarios can also be satisfied.
For blockchain entertainment, it can support the securitization of star assets, such as star-related token assets. In terms of blockchain big data, it can support the data right, ensure that the data owner controls the data ownership, ensure the authenticity of the data, traceability, can not be modified, and finally realize data transactions according to the needs of different entities. , to ensure personal privacy and data security.
Based on HPB's blockchain infrastructure, based on its high performance, blockchain applications can be built in multiple scenarios. The HPB design provides a blockchain application program interface and application development package. In the HPB blockchain base layer, it provides blockchain data access and interactive interfaces, and supports various applications and development languages ​​using JSON-RPC and RESTful APIs. It also supports multi-dimensional blockchain data query and transaction submission, and the interactive access interface can be integrated with the privilege control system.
The application development package includes comprehensive functional service packages that operate on blockchains based on different development languages. For example, it provides functional interfaces such as encryption, data signature, and transaction generation, and can seamlessly support integration and function expansion of various language service systems. , supports multiple language SDKs such as Java, JavaScript, Ruby, Python, and .NET.
Conclusion
If the future blockchain wants to enter the mainstream population, it must have high-performance public-chain or infrastructure support to form a true application ecosystem. Ethereum's dream to build a decentralized ecosystem cannot be achieved on an existing basis. Ethereum is trying to improve performance and expand scalability through fragmentation, plasma, and pos consensus mechanisms.
At the same time, the current status quo has also spawned other public-linked efforts, including eos, HPB, etc. Among them, HPB has adopted a unique combination of hardware and software, dedicated BOE hardware acceleration, signature verification speed, encryption channel security, data transmission Speed, network performance, and high concurrent support all have their own advantages over simple software solutions.
In the software architecture, consensus algorithms for internal and external elections, flexible virtual machine design, application program interfaces, and development packages are also used to provide infrastructure for the development of blockchain application scenarios.
From the overall design of HPB, its goal is to provide high-performance infrastructure for the entire blockchain to mainstream people. With a high-performance infrastructure, blockchains can only be implemented in many high-frequency scenarios to create more application ecosystems and have the opportunity to reach mainstream people.
The HPB team focused on the technical background, including the founder Wang Xiaoming who was an early evangelist in the blockchain and once participated in the establishment of UnionPay Big Data, Beltal, and Beltal CTO. Co-founder CTO Xu Li has more than 10 years of experience in chip industry R&D and management. He was responsible for the logic design, R&D, and FPGA chip marketing of the core products of the world's top qualified equipment suppliers and the world's largest component distributor. Technical VP Shu Shanlin once worked for Inspur, a well-known Chinese server manufacturer, as an embedded chief engineer, and has extensive R&D experience in embedded software and underlying software. Another co-founder, Li Jinxin, is a former blockchain analyst of Guotai Junan and has extensive experience in digital asset investment.
The background of the team members is in line with the HPB's soft and hard path. According to the latest monthly report, the basic PCB layout design of the BOE board, the overall architecture design of the BOE, and the ECC acceleration scheme have also been completed. At the same time, several tests have been completed for the BOE hardware acceleration engine.
It is hoped that HPB will develop rapidly and will embark on a path with its own characteristics in the future of blockchain infrastructure competition. It will provide support for more decentralized applications and eventually build a prosperous ecosystem.
Risk Warning: All Blue Fox articles do not constitute investment recommendations, investment risks, it is recommended to conduct in-depth inspection of the project, and carefully make their own investment decisions.
Source: https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/RSuz6R6MTotEL_U__Al_Wg
submitted by azerbajian to HPBtrader [link] [comments]

Announcing the MegaBit Bitcoin Lottery

EDIT: Removed the lottery address per /bitcoin rules. You can see how to play at /MegaBitLotto
We are pleased to introduce the provably-fair MegaBit Bitcoin Lottery. To enter send any amount of bitcoin to the pool address at any time as often as you like. The total prize pool at any time is the balance of that pool address. Drawings for the lottery will be done every 1120 blocks. The likelihood of winning any prize depends on the total lottery pot size and the amount of your entry (as detailed below).
How it works
Lottery Draw Pools
If any prize pool has no winners it rolls over to the next draw.
Odds of Winning
The odds of winning first prize are the entry amount divided by the pot amount, the odds of winning second prize and third prize are 1/50 and 1/20 the total number of entries if all entries are for the same amount. Larger entries have greater odds of winning.
For example, assume a 1000 euro pot from 1000 entries of 1 euro each the odds of any one entry winning are:
Provably Fair
The DRAW_ODDS and ENTRY_ODDS are easily calculated from the block and transaction information in the blocks in the DRAW_PERIOD, therefore it is possible for anyone with access to the blockchain to verify that the MegaBit draw was performed fairly.
Since a block hash cannot be known in advance it is impossible for anyone, including us, to generate a winning entry transaction hash before the drawing block is solved.
What about miners?
Miners have the ability to determine the DRAW_HASH because they create the block hash. However, in order to create a winning block hash their difficulty in solving a block will increase by a factor of DRAW_ODDS divided by ENTRY_ODDS for their entry (even miners must purchase an entry ticket to win).
For example: if the total prize pot is 500 euros and the miner buys a 500 euro ticket the total prize pot becomes 1000 euros and the block hash generated by the miner has a 50% chance of winning first prize (their ticket amount divided by the total pot). In this example the miner must, on average, generate twice the block hashes as usual to ensure a winning entry, effectively doubling their block difficulty. With this effective increase of difficulty the miner is less likely to solve the block. They then become simply a regular participant in the lottery as they have a much higher chance of losing their block reward and transaction fees to other miners.
A miner cannot generate a winning transaction after the block hash has been calculated as this new transaction would change the merkle root of the block and they'd have to start solving the block all over again.
Help us out!
The MegaBit lottery is in beta and needs participants so we can verify the drawing code is working properly before making the first actual draw. Please only enter small amounts (a few euro cents) as we realize this is an unproven venture. The first actual draw will be in seven to fourteen days. Draw results will be posted to the MegaBit lottery subreddit at /MegaBitLotto and cross-posted to /Bitcoin.
At first the lottery pool will be quite small, but we hope that it will grow to be a substantial amount over time.
Regards,
The MegaBit Bitcoin Lottery team
submitted by MegaBitLotto to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

iwtwe's Total Noob Starting Guide. much noob..such help...very inform...wow

NOTE for seasoned miners, if I have made a mistake or if there is an easier way of configuring the miners or if I left something out, please do not hesitate to contact me about it so that I can edit this post accordingly. Let's help new people out so that the community will continue to grow! many thanks...wow
Hey you. Yes you with the eyes. Are you new to the world of crypto coin mining? Have no idea what a dogecoin is? Want to start mining dogecoins today and just can't seem to figure it out or get it to work?
Well have I got much help for you! About a week ago, I finally started mining after two painful days of trying to get it to work. Basically, I was a total noob and didn't really understand anything about mining in general. Because of the joy mining has brought me so far I am writing this guide to hopefully help out new members or other total noobs.
It's safe to say I've been bitten by the dogecoin bug. I started out with a measly 50 khash/sec and made approximately 10 coins in 12 hours. * My reaction when I finally got my miner to work * Reaction cont.
Now I'm up to 500 khash/sec after figuring out all the 'nuts and bolts' of mining. wow...such optimization...many hash
I'll break this guide down into three categories: Detailed Info, CGMiner Config for AMD Cards, and lastly, CUDAMiner for Nvidia cards.
Detailed Info very words....wow
A dogecoin is a type of crypto currency that is traded against bitcoins in a crypto currency marketplace.
You can earn dogecoins by contributing hashes (computing power) to a mining pool to help find a block.
There are a certain amount of dogecoins that will be released. These coins are released in the form of a block ranging in quantity of 1-1,000,000 doge coins. It is worth noting that the total quantity of coins per block will soon be halved to just 500,000.
Things you will need to mine: * dogecoin wallet * computer with a GPU * an account with a mining pool * a worker for the mining pool * mining software
1) [http://dogecoin.com](Download the doge coin wallet and install it)
2) Turn off your computer's anti-virus software and allow the dogecoin wallet through your fire wall. *VERY IMPORTANT
3) Run the dogecoin wallet and let it sync with the network. It is important to note that this can take a short amount of time or even up to 12 hours to complete. Just be patient. Use that time to research mining more.

Once your wallet has synced with the network, it is time to sign up with a mining pool. Think of a mining pool as a virtual supercomputer that is made up of many smaller computers connected together. This pool or 'super computer' allows for greater processing power. More processing power = greater chance of the pool finding a block.

Finding a pool
"Dear shibes!
Be careful when running Java and/or entering the usepass on sites. There are phishing sites out there that imitate other pools to steal your data.
When accessing a mining pool, DO NOT follow any redirects, always access the site directly and check the URL. For extra security, make sure you're using https://
Don't run Java!" <--- not my words, but very good warning to take into consideration
1) Perform a quick google search or use the links in the side bar to find a pool!
2) For this example I will be using https://fast-pool.com/index.php (I in no way, shape, or form endorse this particular pool. It was the first one I clicked. Feel free to use any pool you want, as the sites are all the same.)
3) You're going to want to click "Sign Up" in the menu on the left of the page. After clicking, sign up for an account.
4) After signing up for an account, log into your account. (For the sake of my example my mining pool site username will be "Shibe")
5) Now we will create a pool worker. Click "My Workers" in the menu on the left side of the page.
6) Choose a worker name and worker password and click submit. *NOTE THE WORKER NAME IS NOT THE SAME AS YOUR ACCOUNT USERNAME
7) For the sake of the example my workers name is "worker1" and the password is "x". *Note capitalization matters so don't forget it.
Now we will download a mining software and configure it to mine.
Before we do that I want to clarify what the info we will be using to configure our miner is.
1) Click "Getting Started"
In my example pool under getting started you will see this in "Step 3":
  1. Configure your miner.
    Settings for Stratum (recommended): STRATUM: stratum+tcp://fast-pool.com PORT: 3336 Username: Weblogin.Worker Password: Worker Password
If you use a command-line miner, type:
./cgminer --scrypt -o stratum+tcp://fast-pool.com:3336 -u Weblogin.Worker -p Worker password
The above explained:
Final Step Regarding Mining Pools
We need to add our payment address to our mining pool account so that we can receive the dogecoins we help mine.
1) Click "Edit Account" on the menu on the left side of the page.
2) Scroll down until you see "PAYMENT ADDRESS".
3) Minimize the webpage and go to your doge coin wallet.
4) In your dogecoin wallet click the "Much Receive" tab.
5) You will see the Label "Default" with an "Address" composed of a long random string of letters and numbers.
6) Right-click that string of random numbers and letters and select "copy address".
7) Maximize the pools webpage again and paste that address into "PAYMENT ADDRESS".
8) Enter you pin and click "Update Account".
WE'RE NOW READY TO DOWNLOAD A MINER such hooray....many celebrate
IF YOU HAVE AN AMD CARD, THIS SECTION IS FOR YOU!
*Note AMD cards are much better for mining than Nvidia. It's just the way it is!
We will be using cgminer to mine dogecoins with our AMD cards.
While there are newer versions of cgminer avaliable you're going to want to download cgminer version 3.7.2 because any higher versions do not support GPU mining.
1) Make sure your AMD drivers are up to date.
2) This version of cgminer is now only available on gitub at this url. The option to download the zip file in on the bottom left right side column.
3) After downloading the file, extract its contents to a folder on your desktop.
4) Before we do that go to Control Panel Folder Options View select "Show hidden files, folders, and drives" and click apply.
BEFORE YOU TRY THE BELOW, RUN THE APPLICATION AND INPUT THE SERVER URL:PORT (stratum+tcp://fast-pool.com:3336) "enter" USERNAME (Shibe.worker1) "enter" and PASSWORD (x) "enter".
*If the application runs without giving you errors hit the [S] and select "create config file" and hit enter.
5) If that didn't work, we will make a .conf file that allows cgminer to run correctly.
6) Now go to the folder you extracted cgminer into.
7) Right-click anywhere in the folder and select "New" Text document.
8) Right-click the new text document you just created and select "Edit".
9) Copy and paste the following into that new text document leaving no space at the top and enter the appropriate pool information accordingly. Noticed I used my STRATUM info from my example.
IF YOU HAVE ONLY ONE GPU USE THE BELOW
{ "pools" : [ { "url" : "stratum+tcp://fast-pool.com:3336", "user" : "Shibe.worker1", "pass" : "x" } ] , "intensity" : "10", "vectors" : "1", "worksize" : "256", "kernel" : "scrypt", "lookup-gap" : "0", "thread-concurrency" : "0", "shaders" : "0", "gpu-engine" : "0-0", "gpu-fan" : "0-0", "gpu-memclock" : "0", "gpu-memdiff" : "0", "gpu-powertune" : "0", "gpu-vddc" : "0.000", "temp-cutoff" : "95", "temp-overheat" : "0", "temp-target" : "0", "api-mcast-port" : "4028", "api-port" : "4028", "expiry" : "120", "gpu-dyninterval" : "7", "gpu-platform" : "0", "gpu-threads" : "1", "hotplug" : "5", "log" : "5", "no-pool-disable" : true, "queue" : "0", "scan-time" : "30", "scrypt" : true,
IF YOU HAVE TWO GPU's IN CROSSFIRE USE THE BELOW CODE
{ "pools" : [ { "url" : "stratum+tcp://fast-pool.com:3336", "user" : "Shibe.worker1", "pass" : "x" } ] , "intensity" : "10,10", "vectors" : "1,1", "worksize" : "256,256", "kernel" : "scrypt,scrypt", "lookup-gap" : "0,0", "thread-concurrency" : "0,0", "shaders" : "0,0", "gpu-engine" : "0-0,0-0", "gpu-fan" : "0-0,0-0", "gpu-memclock" : "0,0", "gpu-memdiff" : "0,0", "gpu-powertune" : "0,0", "gpu-vddc" : "0.000,0.000", "temp-cutoff" : "95,95", "temp-overheat" : "0,0", "temp-target" : "0,0", "api-mcast-port" : "4028", "api-port" : "4028", "expiry" : "120", "gpu-dyninterval" : "7", "gpu-platform" : "0", "gpu-threads" : "1", "hotplug" : "5", "log" : "5", "no-pool-disable" : true, "queue" : "0", "scan-time" : "30", "scrypt" : true, "temp-hysteresis" : "3", "shares" : "0", "kernel-path" : "/uslocal/bin" }
10) Click save-as Save as type, "All files" and rename the document to: cgminer.conf
11) Click save and run program.
12) If it still doesn't work try changing the intensity to a lower number or changing the workspace value to 64.
Everything should work now. If I have made any errors or if there are easier ways of doing this please let me know so that I can edit this. This is just what worked for me.
IF YOU HAVE A NVIDIA CARD THIS SECTION IS FOR YOU!
Before we do anything, go to Control Panel Folder Options View select "Show hidden files, folders, and drives" and click apply.
We will be using Cudaminer version 2013-07-13 https://mega.co.nz/#!hVREmSKA!VaGCdh3Ykfp-e8IOTFWaEXJGMa1JNVqPcdxawkCPRSE
1) Download Cudaminer version 2013-07-13 from that link and extract the contents to a folder on the desktop.
2) Open that folder and look for the Application.
3) When you've found the location of the Application it's-self you're going to right-click anywhere in the folder and select "New" Text document.
8) Right-click the new text document you just created and select "Edit".
9) Copy and paste this to the top line of the blank text document leaving no space in front and input the appropriate url, username and password from whatever pool you use. (I will be using my example pool info stated earlier in this post):
cudaminer.exe -o stratum+tcp://fast-pool.com:3336 -u Shibe.worker1 -p x
10) Click save-as Save as type, "All files" and rename the document to: Launch.bat
11) Click save.
12) Double click the Launch.bat file you just created to run the program.
13) Wait for the program to auto-tune your settings and then it will start mining automatically.
Everything should work now. If I have made any errors or if there are easier ways of doing this please let me know so that I can edit this. This is just what worked for me.
submitted by iwtwe to dogecoin [link] [comments]

[original research / proposal] [codenamed: BUTTBREAKER] A Million Little Shitchains

This concept is guaranteed to annoy you or your money back!
This builds on the 100,000 tps proposal. To recap, I've thrown together 100 clonecoins with 50MB cap each "into one large Voltron Coin", as SoCo_cpp aptly put it.
Now I'm going to wave my hand, wait for the ding, and level up to exascale technology. So terabytes are basically kilobytes now.
Our previous "Voltron Coin" will be termed "MegaBlockA" (MBA) and will have become the new Bitcoin: it's top by marketshare and stagnating. It has 100,000 tps throughput, which should be enough for anyone, and a fee market is now developing. Dice transactions have started to be labeled as spam, and bible verses now cost $1 or more to embed in the megachain (composed of all 100 subsidiary clonecoin chains).
A Commodore of Industry develops a bold, new scheme: a million little shitchains. A million generic chains are created, and organized into 1,000 blockchain units each on the model of MBA, termed MegaShitChain1 through MegaShitChain1000. A controlling overchain, known as the UltraShitChain (USC), is similarly composed of those MegaShitChains. One USC represents a coin on each of the one million shitcoins, through being one coin in each of the MegaShitChains.
The total throughput available for USC transactions on the shitcoins would be one billion transactions per second, based on the 50 MB block size hard cap and 1 minute block rate of the clones. The total disk space and bandwidth necessary in order to keep a full USC node synchronized will be greater than that needed for a modern NSA data center, but we're in exascale, so it'll be like a $5 calculator.
Prohashing is the new Google, as Scrypt mining becomes the most profitable industry in the world. AmericanPegasus is on CNN every night warning about how cryptocurrency has now developed into a bubble and investors should consider putting their money into conventional equities instead as a hedge. Subsistence farmers in Africa invest a dollar into USC and cash out for millions (of shitcoins worth less than a dollar collectively which are then sold to neighbors). Euphoria and weaseldust run rampant on the streets and hospitals are overwhelmed with overdoses.
And that's the story of how scale-out solved throughput.
Usecases
Decentralized mining
The NSA can sponsor a ProHashing underwater Scrypt mining megacenter in each of the seven oceans (more depending on how one counts). The accelerated ocean warming should be ideal for swimming (may not be ideal for swimming; no warranty of fitness of warmed oceans for swimming should be implied).
Tradebots / SkyNet 2.0
Autonomous, intelligent tradebots become massively wealthy trading between the million underlying shitcoins. These bots become leading patrons of the Robot Supremacy movement which is a major advance in sentient being rights overall, although human rights suffer a bit incidentally during the uprising and for a few centuries thereafter.
Weaseldust Road
The ultimate in weaseldust markets, Weaseldust Road is hosted on the USC ultrashitchain itself and is its killer app. The Weaseldust Road client, codenamed HONEYPOT, is a full USC node combined with a few trojans and a GUI for accessing Weaseldust Road. Featuring suspiciously low prices on weaseldust as well as some sellers with long-term (1+ month) exit scams who provide excellent service in the meantime, Weaseldust Road quickly becomes the leading weaseldust marketplace, as well as being the second place market for buying alpaca socks with USC (behind Alpaca Road, which is the second leading weaseldust marketplace).
In fact, Weaseldust Road's legendary abilities as a killer app will ultimately be memorialized in the song Weaseldust Road, with the "you never come back from Weaseldust Road" refrain, a tribute to the Copperhead Road song linked above, as well as to the wave of weaseldust-related deaths linked by critics to the rise of Weaseldust Road.
Proofs
1=1, therefore, quod erat demonstrandum.
I can conceive of it, and I can imagine that it necessarily exists, therefore, it exists.
If a thousand angels can dance on the head of a pin, and if the Lightning Network can handle infinite throughput, and if the weaseldust supply lasts, and if the USC ICO raises at least 22 million BTC in value, then USC will be created and trade above its par value of 1 satoshi per million USC.
lorem ipsum, nil illegitimi carborundum, hocus pocus
submitted by coinaday to Buttcoin [link] [comments]

Bitclub Network April 25th, 2018 Update

Taken directly from their site....
BITCLUB NEWS Quick Summary, New Upgrades, and Big Updates... Date: April 25th
Included in this update...
Quick Summary of last 6 months BCN Support & Legal Updates New Invoicing System (BTC, BCH and ETH) ClubCoin Update Mining Power Update - Large Credit Debit Cards in Testing Mining Earnings and Wallet Balances GPU Shares Transaction History for Deposits Scheduled Updates
Quick Summary of last 6 months
Right now is a crazy time to be involved in this space! Bitcoin and the entire digital currency market is going mainstream right in front of our eyes and the opportunities are plentiful. Many of you reading this have been fortunate enough to find Bitcoin early and maybe you joined this opportunity 1, 2, or even 4 years ago when we first started mining Bitcoin.
If you are among the early adopters then it's likely you are holding a small fortune made up of many different digital currencies (BTC, BCH, ETH, ETC, ZEC, XMR and even CLUB). If you are brand new to BitClub then your journey is about to begin and we are excited to help you make the next few years just as lucrative as the first ones.
But either way if you are newbie or a long time member of BitClub we want you to know that our vision goes way beyond mining as we plan to add more value and more features in the next 90 days than we have in the previous 2 years.
Some people think it's too late because they missed the initial rise of Bitcoin and the opportunity is over to cash in, but these people are dead wrong!
It is still very early in Phase 1 of this digital currency revolution and we believe the next phase is where the real money will be made. Just think about it, every major industry and government organization will soon be affected by crypto and blockchain in some shape or form.
We will see huge competition for market share on services like wallets, exchanges, and newly mined blocks :) Right now BitClub has a huge advantage over companies fighting for market this share... That advantage is YOU!
We have built an army of distributors around the world and many members of BitClub are becoming some of the largest crypto currency holders in the world. Our network is full of early adopters and with millions of members now enrolled in our organization we have the power to build and shape the services of tomorrow.
The sky is the limit on how big we can grow from here and over the past 6 months our top priority has been to anchor BitClub and strengthen our foundation for the next phase of this growth.
With that said... We want to address a few growing pains that we've been experiencing. Basically, it all started around September of last year when our sales skyrocketed to heights we never dreamed of, the sales were doubling each month and the market was in a total buying frenzy at the time. We quickly realized our company needed some serious help in order to scale and stay on track.
The first thing we did was limit our sales to only allow what we could purchase. This helped to manage the mining operation side but it did not slow down the BCN membership side and pretty soon just about every aspect of BitClub was bursting at the seams.
Some companies may have have folded under this hyper growth, but luckily for us all of our issues were minor and we could handle them, it just took some time and effort.
First it was the database which grew to over 1 TB in size and started to cause commissions issues, delays, and forced us to pause all the repurchases and infinity commissions until we could stabilize the database. We are still catching up on this!
At one point just trying to run the repurchase script was crashing and slowing down our servers to a crawl for 48 hours or more because of the millions of commission records it was creating and paying in real time.
Next it was the mining operation and some delays on trying to scale it (more details below), and then finally there was the support and legal side that needed major upgrades as the industry was evolving.
We realized we could no longer operate in the shadows, we needed to hire fast, get organized and tackle all of this head on if we wanted to continue providing a good user experience.
This is exactly what we've been doing and in this update you will get details on some of the key pieces we have put together as well as an outlook on the future of BitClub.
Please read and pass this along to your team. Thanks!
BCN Support & Legal Updates
We are happy to report the formation of a new operations company that was formalized and is now running the support and compliance side of our business. We have incorporated the company in Nevis under the name BitClub Network Inc.
We have also put together a structure that allows us to operate and protect our business in many jurisdictions around the world. With the formation of this new structure we will soon be launching brand new policies and procedures, terms and conditions, and very specific contract details for our mining shares moving forward.
One of the main reasons we needed to incorporate now was to stop scammers and people who are using our name to run their own scams. There are dozens of fake sites that we have come across and its been hard to go after them without a legal leg to stand on.
We have even seen fake events happening that are giving people false or misleading information and we will no longer stand for this. If you have come across any scams like this please continue to reach out and let us know so that we can begin shutting them down!
We are also incorporating to become compliant in many jurisdictions that we are operating in. This will work both ways because any unfriendly jurisdictions who make it hard to comply (like the United Sates) will be blocked and enforced.
You will see BitClub corporate taking a much stronger approach to termination in these countries and you can expect a different look as we move from the shadows into the light and make our company compliant.
Please understand this is necessary for us and we will likely be closing down more markets in the future as we evaluate the laws in each of them. Our goal is to be able to operate everywhere but at this time it's just not realistic so we will act quickly and pull out of markets who may threaten our model.
Better Support...
Under our new operations company we have hired over twenty new support people including customer service agents, management level employees, a full compliance department, a new marketing department, and lots of new programmers.
We have really been focusing on getting our ducks in a row and we are now in a position to expand fast and support all the new projects we have coming down the pipeline this year and beyond.
If you've submitted a support ticket recently you've likely noticed a significant improvement in response times and general customer service levels, this includes local language capabilities with full support in Korean and Japanese. (if you have not tried our support tickets in Korean and Japanese please do, we are ready to handle them).
We will continue to build a world-class support infrastructure to support you and part of these support improvements we have formed a dedicated leadership support team to provide VIP-level support for Master, Monster and Mega Builders in your local language. Stay tuned for additional details on when these services will launch.
Finally, after some delay, the withdrawals team is now facilitating XMR withdrawals and we are pushing all withdrawals in a much more efficient way. You can expect to see 24 hour response times for all currencies moving forward.
NOTE: If you have an XMR withdrawal pending, you should receive confirmation when complete along with details of how to access your funds. The Monero chain has been a tough one for use to navigate with the new forks and overall process Monero requires, but we are finally ahead of it and will clear out all the Monero pending withdrawals this week.
New Invoicing System (BTC, BCH, ETH)
Starting on May 10th we are bringing back Bitcoin (BTC) and we are also adding Ethereum (ETH) to all invoices. This means you can now chose from 4 different ways to pay for all products and services that BitClub offers. (Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Ethereum, and ClubCoin).
Even better news... It doesn't matter how you pay for your invoice or what your downline chooses to pay with because you have full control over which currency you want your commissions to be paid in. We will continue to expand this model as we make it live and improve it, but you can expect it to happen on the 10th of May.
This will include an internal conversion tool that you can easily use to swap your tokens within your virtual wallet. We are really excited to launch this system because it lays the foundation for what we want to do in the future and it also eliminates our #1 biggest problem.
That problem is overpayment and underpayment of invoices!
With our new invoice wallet if you overpay the invoice it will be auto credited to your virtual wallet, if you underpay an invoice it will sit in limbo and continue to refresh every 10 min with the new exchange rate until you pay it. You will constantly be redirected to the invoice to finish your transaction.
This is a full integration with CoinPay and you will see the invoices fully powered on the CoinPay platform when it launches. Thank you for your patience as we finalize this move and update the system accordingly.
ClubCoin Update
We have made significant progress on re listing ClubCoin on some other exchanges. Unfortunately, for reasons outside of our control, ClubCoin was de-listed from Bittrex at the end of March along with 80+ other coins.. We've provided Bittrex with all the required documentation to comply and with the formation of a new legal entity and structure ClubCoin is now in good standing and full legal compliance.
We are currently submitting the coin on dozens of other exchanges and we have hired a new development team and legal team to take over the marketing, social media, and promotion of the token moving forward.
Nothing has changed with our future plans to deploy ClubCoin inside of CoinPay and we know one day it be a very valuable utility token on the platform.
What to do with your ClubCoin in Bittrex?
We just added a new internal ClubCoin wallet so that you can generate a deposit address from inside your Back Office. You can find this in your ClubCoin wallet under the Deposit Club tab. This works in the same way you generate an address for for BTC and BCH and then you can send from your Bittrex wallet or any other CC wallet.
Or we strongly recommend you can download our latest ClubCoin core and begin staking your coins and running a full node on your computer. The more nodes we have the more secure and safe the network is. Plus, you will earn staking rewards automatically (download ClubCoin here - www.ClubCoin.co)
Stay tuned for more updates on ClubCoin development and also the much anticipated launch of CoinPay (which we will have a big update on after this next round of BitClub upgrades is complete).
Mining Power Update – Large Credit
Our Bitcoin mining operation is currently experiencing some bad luck. We are not talking about the bad luck that is normal in mining a block, instead we are referring to overall bad luck in some circumstances.
For our latest expansion we had a very specific deployment schedule when the machines were to be turned on but it's been one thing after another causing delays in deployment.
Without getting into all the specifics and pointing fingers or blame we will just touch on some of the issues. There have been electricity issues, customs delays, shipping issues, missing power supplies, problems with racks, cooling, and even electricity rates, etc...
We are working as hard as we can to get these machines turned on ASAP and its been a real challenge that we have not encountered before. However, the good news is we are being compensated by the datacenter and by the manufacturer of this equipment on a daily basis for the downtime we are having.
As we mentioned in a previous update there is a strong clause in our contract that pays us daily for the machines not being online and while this is a good thing to have, we would much rather have the machines hashing in our pool and minting new Bitcoin.
Big Compensation Coming May 4th...
We collected another large chunk for the compensation owed to us on these delays and we will disburse this to all members on May 4th.
We are hoping to see a significant amount of power come online before the end of the month and the rest of the power is on track and scheduled to be deployed in other regions of the world without delay, so we should catch up quickly after this hiccup.
This has been a major pain point for us and we are just as anxious and excited to get this power in our pool as you are. This will provide a big boost in our overall market share and increase daily mining earnings to what they should be. So please be patient as we do everything we can to get there.
Debit Cards in Testing
We appreciate the excitement around debit cards and the ability it will provide members to utilize their earnings in everyday transactions. This undertaking hit a few legal hurdles that we are addressing now and we hope to roll out the cards to all Mega Monster and Monster Builders in the next few weeks.
We are putting significant resources behind this partnership and we will have a fully integrated solution that is exclusive to BitClub members only. This is one of our highest priorities and we will announce a rollout date very soon for everyone so please stay tuned for additional details.
Mining Earnings & Wallet Balances
We have seen many inquiries about mining earnings and wallet balances that seem to be off. This has been from the database overload and the restructuring process and its only a display issue that is temporary. We are now all caught up with commissions and any payments that were delayed or were showing wrong should now be fixed.
If you are still having an issue please open a ticket and we will take a look and make sure your balance is correct. Thanks for your patience on this, we keep very good records and accurate data so if you see something is off usually it will be automatically fixed when the next commission run is done or when one of our audit scripts kicks in.
Its actually amazing how many daily records we are now generating from all the commissions, mining earnings, partial shares, and infinity payments. All of these records you see in your back office are actually a small fraction because we summarize them to help not overload you. If you saw all the calculations that happen on a daily basis it would make your head spin.
But again most important is we have a check and balance system in place that will correct itself and save us from ever paying out more than we should without serious alarms going off. This protects us all!
GPU Shares Update
Similar to the Mining Earnings and Wallet Balance display issues, we are aware and apologize for the technical glitch not allowing you to set your account to mine anything outside of Ethereum. This has to due with invoices that were paid in BTC and some in BCH (which will soon not be an issue).
In fact, you will be able to fully control ALL of your GPU shares to mine whatever you want. So if you purchased a 5 pack right now all you can do is move all 5 to a single coin. This next upgrade will allow you to control each of them individually.
And even more exciting you can control your repurchases on each individual share. This feature was intended to work like Bitcoin mining partial shares but we had to put out some much needed fires with our DB structure and other top priority features before moving back to this.
We expect this to be live on May 1st before the new invoicing system goes into play on the 10th. We also have some big things planned on the GPU side as far as expansion and mining opportunities.
In fact, we believe 2018 will be the year to gear up on GPU shares and accumulate as much power as we can for the future because there is so much upside in the GPU shares.
With all the coins ASIC proofing their model it means GPU's will continue to be profitable and we are now starting to see demand for AI data mining, rendering, and much more. So GPU shares will become a big focus of our expansion this year!
Transaction History for Deposits
Over the past month or so we have seen a significant number of support tickets and inquiries relating to the inability to view transaction history for deposits – this is a feature that used to exist in your wallet history. This feature is also making it's way back online and will be further enhanced with the launch of our new invoicing platform on May 10th.
If you are missing a transaction or credit please let us know. At this point we have received all deposits sent and there are clear records of everything but we are seeing an issue from certain transactions that are not showing up on the member side at all.
Again, this is nothing to be concerned about because if you sent any amount of crypto to an address generated from our system we will credit it to your account. The amount may be stuck in the old table and not displaying in your balance. This will be completely fixed for all deposits and history after May 10th.
Scheduled Updates and Better Communication
Moving forward in May we are implementing a news structure that will have two updates per month. One on the 1st of the month and one on the 15th of the month. This will give you a consistent overview of everything we are doing and allow us to translate these updates in the future.
We are working on a lot of cool features right now. This includes an entirely refreshed website, member back office, marketing tools, and reporting tools to make managing your downline much easier. Now that we have a solid team in place you will begin to see huge improvements in your BitClub membership.
It took us a lot longer to get here than expected, but we now have the pieces in place for Phase 2 and we hope the lack of communication and all the issues we had over the past few months will be forgotten as we move forward and have big plans for this year.
As always, we appreciate your patience and we will continue to work hard to build this company for you!
Sincerely, -BCN Support Team
submitted by kawika357 to BitclubNetwork [link] [comments]

How much energy is Bitcoin Mining really taking up, I did some Math

After seeing the new hashrate and difficulty I started to wonder just how much electricity we are using to mine.
So here is the math:
Name Value
Hash 171 PetaHash
Hashs per joule 1000 Megahash
joules 171 Mega Joules
MWh/yr 1 497 960
Watts/person in US 1402
US persons worth of power 121 968 people
in kWH 4 104 000
Cost at US electricity prices $492 480 per day
We are consuming 121 thousand people's worth of electricity to make new coins.
In terms of energy cost that is 492 thousand per day. While in the last 24 hours 4175 bitcoins were rewarded at a value of 2.2 million.
sources: http://bitinfocharts.com http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_electricity_consumption https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Mining_Hardware_Comparison http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity_pricing#Price_comparison
submitted by InquisitiveIntent to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

BITCOIN HASHRATE HITS A HIGH - BTC PRICE WILL FOLLOW SAYS MAX KEISER  7 Crypto’s Making Huge Moves Earn BTC with BTC GEN Mega Bitcoin Mining Software 2020 Fully Registered Downloa Bitcoin Mining Using Android Phone !!  Easiest and Safest ... $260,000 per Bitcoin Stephen Colbert Introduces BTC to Millions  Ethereum 2.0 Specs  Crypto News What is Bitcoin? Bitcoin Explained Simply for Dummies ...

Find out if it's profitable to mine Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, DASH or Monero. Do you think you've got what it takes to join the tough world of cryptocurrency mining? CryptoCompare needs javascript enabled in order to work. Follow these instructions to activate and enable JavaScript in Chrome. PC. To the right of the address bar, click the icon with 3 stacked horizontal lines. From the drop ... Like all computer data, hashes are large numbers, and are usually written as hexadecimal. BitCoin uses the SHA-256 hash algorithm to generate verifiably "random" numbers in a way that requires a predictable amount of CPU effort. Generating a SHA-256 hash with a value less than the current target solves a block and wins you some coins. Essentials for Bitcoin Mining ... The units of measuring the hash rate are MH/sec – mega hashes per second, GH/sec – Giga hashes per second, TH/sec – Tera hashes per second. Usually, the range varies from 336 MH/s to 14, 000, 000 MH/s. CPU and GPU: slowly, with time, the trend of CPU mining and GPU mining is reducing due to less efficiency concerning power consumption. On average, mining ... Current value is updated every 2 hours from Bitcoin Block Explorer: more on difficulty Bitcoin Block Explorer: hash rate: Specify how many mega-hashes per second each worker (graphics card or cpu) is able to generate. hash rates examples: consumption: The power consumption in watts of each individual worker. If you have multiple workers on a single computer (for example when using multiple ... The Bitcoin hashrate is number of possible solutions (hashes) being generated per second. As of January 2020, the Bitcoin hashrate peaked at 131 EH/s. Bitcoin mining also generates new Bitcoin. When a Bitcoin miner finds the correct hash to solve the next Bitcoin block, the miner is rewarded with Bitcoin. Currently, 6.25 Bitcoin are created when a block is solved. Bitcoin Mining Guide. To ...

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BITCOIN HASHRATE HITS A HIGH - BTC PRICE WILL FOLLOW SAYS MAX KEISER 7 Crypto’s Making Huge Moves

Despite stagnation in the price, Bitcoin’s network metrics are strong and its mining hash rate has seen an exponential increase in the last couple of months and touched a new all-time high of ... But what effect will the booming hash rate have on the price of BTC? According to Bitcoin investor and the co-host of the Keiser Report, Max Keiser, BTC is likely to follow the hash rate higher ... Bitcoin Technical Analysis & Bitcoin News Today: The Bitcoin hashrate is breaking record after record and is at an all-time high right now. Also, I'll use technical analysis on the Bitcoin price ... The number of bitcoin in circulation, the number of transactions per day, Google search interest, the value of one bitcoin, and the hash rate of the bitcoin network. Transactions: https ... Earn BTC with BTC GEN Mega Bitcoin Mining Software 2020 Fully Registered Downloa ... #bitcoin price history #how much is a bitcoin #bitcoin current value #btc value #btc price usd #bitcoin worth # ...

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